Category Archives: Ahindra Nag

Energy and Its Biological Resources

К. B. De 1.1 Energy (Yesterday, Today, and Tomorrow) Today’s energy concept needs to be modified and should be presented as an integrated management-oriented approach. For example, the problem of nutrition of human population and livestock is also an important item in the energy inventory So the per capita energy requirement will include 2000 kcal of the basal requirement in […]

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Distillation

Mash is usually centrifuged or settled in order to separate the micro­bial biomass from the liquid and then sent to the ethanol recovery system. Distillation is typically used for the separation of ethanol, alde­hydes, fusel oil, and stillage [9]. Ethanol is readily concentrated from mash by distillation, since the volatility of ethanol in a dilute solution is much higher than […]

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Occupational health impacts

Occupational heath risks associated with using alcohol fuels are lower than those associated with conventional fuels. The relative toxicity of alcohol fuels depends on the means of exposure, inhalation, and inges­tion. Gasoline poses a greater occupational health risk than either methanol or ethanol as carcinogens in gasoline can be readily absorbed by the skin or inhaled.

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Plant Cells Are Unique

Whether they are green algae (chlorella) or the higher plants, autotrophs in general are gifted in nature to fix carbon dioxide and produce biomass. In ecologic terms, these are producers. The dominant autotroph is pho — totrophic. Photosynthesis has two distinct aspects: the light dependent step, where photolysis of water takes place:

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Lignin

Lignin is a very complex molecule. It is an aromatic polymer constructed of phenylpropane units linked in a three-dimensional structure. Generally, softwoods contain more lignin than hardwoods. Lignins are divided into two classes, namely, “guaiacyl lignins” and “guaiacyl — syringyl lignins.” Although the principal structural elements in lignin have been largely clarified, many aspects of their chemistry remain unclear. Chemical […]

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Karanja seed oil

Crop description. Pongamiapinnata (L.) Pierre, P glabra Vent., Cytisus pinnatus L., Derris indica (Lam.) Bennett, and Galedupa indica Lam.— commonly known as karanja, pongam, coqueluche, Vesi Ne Wai, vesivesi, hongay, and honge—belong to the Leguminaceae family and are widely distributed in tropical Asia (see Fig. 4.7). The tree is drought-resistant, tolerant to salinity, and is commonly found in East Indies, […]

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Fuel Cell Basics

Although fuel cells have been around for more than a century (William Grove in 1839 first discovered the principle of the fuel cell), it was not until the National Aeoronautics and Space Administration (NASA) demonstrated its potential applications in providing power during space flights in the 1960s that fuel cells became widely known and the indus­try began to recognize the […]

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