Category Archives: Ahindra Nag

Hemicellulose

Hemicelluloses are heterogeneous polymers of pentoses (e. g., xylose and arabinose), hexoses (e. g., mannose, glucose, and galactose), and sugar acids. Unlike cellulose, hemicelluloses are not chemically homogeneous. Hemicelluloses are relatively easily hydrolyzed by acids to their monomer components consisting of glucose, mannose, galactose, xylose, arabinose, and small amounts of rhamnose, glucuronic acid, methylglucuronic acid, and galacturonic acid. Hardwood hemicelluloses […]

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Jatropha curcas oil

Crop description. J. curcas—commonly known as pourghere, ratanjyot, Barbados nut, physic nut, parvaranda, taua taua, tartago, saboo dam, jarak butte, or awla—belongs to the family Euphorbiaceae and grows in hot, dry, tropical climates (see Fig. 4.6). It originated from South America and is now found worldwide in tropical countries. It grows wild especially in West Africa, and is grown commercially […]

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Fuel Cells

A. K. Sinha 9.1 Introduction Global primary energy consumption (i. e., energy used for space heating, transportation, generating electricity, etc.) is expected to triple from about 400 exajoules (EJ = 1018 joules) per year in 2000 to about 1200 EJ/yr in 2050 at the present rate of increase in consumption. However, due to increased energy efficiency of the devices, the […]

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Bacteria

A great number of bacteria are able to produce ethanol, although many of them generate multiple end products in addition to ethanol. Zymomonas mobilis is an unusual Gram-negative bacterium that has several appealing properties as a fermenting microorganism for ethanol production. It has a homoethanol fermentation pathway and tolerates up to 120 g/L ethanol. Its ethanol yield is comparable with […]

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Used Frying Oils

Currently, world oil crop production is about 139,000,000 ton [141]. In particular, developing countries (97,370,185 ton) and developed coun­tries (41,193,308 ton) are the largest producers, while least developed countries contribute 4,141,535 ton. Most of this oil is used for deep — frying processes, after which it becomes a disposal problem. Disposal methods often contaminate environmental water and contribute to world […]

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Alcohol-diesel fuel solution

This method is the easiest but requires anhydrous ethanol, because methanol has limited solubility. A maximum of 10% diesel can be sub­stituted due to the lower solubility of methanol in diesel. No component changes; only adjustments of injection timing and fuel volume delivery are required to restore full power. Dodecanol is an effective surfactant for methanol-diesel fuel blends. Straight-run gasoline […]

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Air management

Besides fuel, a fuel cell also requires an oxidant (usually air). Depending on the application and design, air provided to the fuel cell cathode can be at a low pressure or a high pressure. High pressure of the air improves the reaction kinetics and increases the power density and efficiency of the stack. But increasing the air pressure reduces the […]

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