Category Archives: Ahindra Nag

Hydrogen

The simplest of the elements, containing a single proton and electron each, of mass almost unity, is the first member of the periodic table. Data may vary from different sources; solid at 4.2 К (d 0.089), H has the atomic number (AN) 1, atomic weight (AW) 1.008 g, melting point (mp) —259.14°C, and boiling point (bp) —252.87°C (d 0.071 at […]

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Yeasts

Historically, yeasts have been the most commonly used microorganisms for ethanol production. Yeast strains are generally chosen among S. cere — visiae, S. ellypsoideuse, S. fragilis, S. carlsbergensis, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Torula cremoris, and Candida pseudotropicalis. Yeast species which can produce ethanol as the main fermentation product are reviewed, e. g., by Lin and Tanaka [8].

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Alcohols in Cl Engine

Although the physical and thermodynamic characteristics of alcohols do not make them particularly suitable for compression ignition (Cl) engines, with certain modifications, however, they can also be used in Cl engines. In heavy vehicles powered by Cl engines, ethanol carbure — tion can be employed for bi-fuel operation of the engine with proportional savings in diesel oil. The various methods […]

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Fuel Cell System

A fuel cell power system requires the integration of many components. The fuel cell produces only dc power and utilizes only certain processed fuels. Besides the fuel cell stack, various components are incorporated in a fuel cell system. A fuel processor is required to allow operation with conventional fuels; a power conditioner is used to tie fuel cells into the […]

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Biofuels Refining and PerformanceBiofuels Refining and Performance

The continuous use of the world’s crude oil reserve and a corresponding escalation in its price together with the limited coal reserves have stimu­lated the hunt for renewable sources of energy. The main sources of renew­able energy are biomass, biogas, methanol, ethanol, and biodiesel; solar active (photovoltaic), solar passive (preheating of water), wind, minihydel, and mini tidal are important sources […]

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Gaseous products

In Chap. 1, gasification (pyrolysis) of biomass, biogas, gobargas, hydro­gen, and biohydrogen were discussed in detail. 2.6.1 Liquid products An important renewable energy resource for transportation purposes is liquid fuel based on plant oils. However, pure plant oils are generally not suitable for use in modern diesel engines. This can be overcome by the process of transesterification. The resultant fatty-acid […]

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Ethanol Recovery

Fermented broth or “mash” typically contains 2-12% ethanol. Further­more, it contains a number of other materials that can be classified into microbial biomass, fusel oil, volatile components, and stillage. Fusel oil is a mixture of primary methylbutanols and methylpropanols formed from a-ketoacids and derived from or leading to amino acids. Depending on the resources used, important components of fusel oil […]

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Fuel and Physical Properties of Biodiesel Components

Gerhard Knothe 5.1 Introduction Biodiesel is an alternative diesel fuel (DF) derived from vegetable oils or animal fats [1, 2]. Transesterification of an oil or fat with a monohy- dric alcohol, in most cases methanol, yields the corresponding mono­alkyl esters, which are defined as biodiesel. The successful introduction and commercialization of biodiesel in many countries around the world has been […]

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