Category Archives: Advances in Bioethanol

Global Production of Bioethanol

Several countries have introduced or are introducing programs for fuel ethanol. According to RFA, Brazil and the US are the dominant industrial players, accounting for 87 % of global biofuel production driven by government support. Tables 7.1, 7.2 shows Total world ethanol production and Ethanol Industry Overview. Figure 7.1 shows Global Ethanol Facilities, and Fig. 7.2 shows ethanol production by […]

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Energy Balances

Bioethanol produced from lignocellulosic biomass and other biowaste materi­als generally result in very favorable (i. e., positive) NER (net energy ratio) val­ues. The definition of net energy value (NEV) is the difference between the energy in the fuel product (output energy) and the energy needed to produce the product (input energy). Ethanol has a net positive energy balance. It takes […]

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Ethanol Markets

The ethanol market is driven by a number of factors including oil prices, national energy and foreign policy, federal and state tax incentives, and technological developments in the future. As expected, as oil prices increase, there is often a shift in the demand for ethanol as a biofuel. However, the market is often limited by the amount that can be […]

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Transportation Fuel

Countries like USA and Brazil have long promoted domestic ethanol production. Ethanol/gasoline blends were promoted as an environmentally driven practice, in the USA initially as an octane enhancer to replace lead. Ethanol is also used as an oxygenate in clean-burning gasoline to reduce vehicle exhaust emissions. In USA, ethanol supplies today account for about 1 % of the highway motor […]

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United States

The USA has the world’s fastest growing and largest fuel ethanol market. From its beginnings in the Midwest three decades ago, the US ethanol industry has grown to 211 plants operating in 29 states, with annual capacity of 14.8 billion gallons. The production of 13.3 billion gallons of ethanol in 2012 created real, measurable eco­nomic opportunity, including 70,000 direct jobs; […]

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Types of Ethanol

Ethanol can be produced in two forms—hydrous and anhydrous. Hydrous etha­nol is usually produced by distillation from biomass fermentation, and it contains some water residue. It is suitable for use as neat spark ignition fuel in warm cli­mates such as that in Brazil. A further process of dehydration is required to pro­duce anhydrous ethanol (100 % ethanol) for blending with […]

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E20, E25

These blends have been widely used in Brazil since the late 1970s. E20 contains 20 % ethanol and 80 % gasoline, while E25 contains 25 % ethanol. As a response to the 1973 oil crisis, the Brazilian government made mandatory the blend of eth­anol fuel with gasoline, fluctuating between 10 and 22 % from 1976 until 1992. Due to this […]

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E10 or Less

E10 is sometimes called gasohol. It is a fuel mixture of 10 % anhydrous ethanol and 90 % gasoline that can be used in the ICE of most modern automobiles and light-duty vehicles and without need for any modification on the engine or fuel sys­tem. E10 blends are typically rated as 2-3 octane higher than regular gasoline and are approved […]

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