Category Archives: Tree Born Oils

Properties and Usage of Butanol

Butanol (C4H9OH), also called as butyl alcohol, or biobutanol if produced from biomass, has four structural isomers with the common names of n-butanol, iso­butanol, sec-butanol, and tert-butanol (Table 17.1). Butanol is used mainly as an intermediate compound for butyl acrylate and methacrylate esters, which are needed for lacquers, paints, and surface coatings. Butyl acetates and glycol ethers are also common […]

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Current Density and Chemical Production Rate

For BESs that target for chemical production and desalination, current density is considered more important than power density. The current density reflects the substrate oxidation rate and directly correlates with the production of chemicals. The more and faster the electrons flow from the substrate to the electrode, the more and faster chemicals can be synthesized on the cathode. For example, […]

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Latex Yielding Plants as a Source of Biofuels

Latex is usually an extractable complex mixture of triglycerides, waxes, terpenes, phytosterols, and other modified isoprenoid compounds from plants. When latex yielding plants are scraped or injured or a slit is made in the plant, high energy hydrocarbon fluids in the form of either latex or resin are exuded. Therefore, latex yielding plants are called ‘hydrocarbon producing plants or petroleum […]

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Production Pathways

Hydrogen has the largest energy content per weight of any known fuel, and can be produced by various means (Hallenbeck and Benemann 2002; Levin et al. 2004). Unfortunately, both the main methods for hydrogen production, electrolysis of water and thermocatalytic reformation of hydrogen-rich compounds, usually require high-energy inputs obtained from non-renewable resources (Levin et al. 2004). Biological production of hydrogen […]

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Production of Bioethanol from Biomass An Overview

Oscar J. Sanchez and Sandra Montoya Abstract This chapter analyzes the main research trends on production of fuel ethanol from lignocellulosic materials. The main features of different pretreatment and detoxification methods are presented. The importance of process integration to simplify the overall process and improve the conversion of biomass into ethanol is discussed. Strategies for microbial strain development are disclosed […]

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Political, Economic, and Environmental Motivations for Biofuels

The dawn of the twentieth century brought the rapid expansion and development of the petroleum, natural gas, and coal industries. Since then, the world’s econ­omies have become highly dependent on fossil resources to meet the demands of industry and to maintain consumer quality of life. Resultant depletion of fossil reserves has the potential to limit global economic growth, complicated by […]

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Biohydrogen Production Mechanisms

Hydrogen can be produced biologically by three mechanisms: i. Fermentative Hydrogen Production Hydrogen can be produced by the fermentation of sugars by bacterial species such as E. coli, Enterobacter aer — ogenes, Clostridium butyricum, etc. This fermentation is classified as ‘‘dark fermentation” as it does not require light energy. Organic compounds can be fermented to produce hydrogen both in the […]

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Applications of MFC

The reducing equivalents generated during MFC operation have multiple appli­cations in the energy generation as well as waste remediation areas. Broadly MFC application can be classified as a power generator, wastewater treatment unit, and system for the recovery of value-added products. Reducing equivalents generated from substrate metabolism gets reduced in presence of an electron acceptor at physically distinct component of […]

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Process Integration for Ethanol Production from Biomass

The process integration offers a great potential to process industry through the improvement of chemical and biotechnological processes. This potential is espe­cially recognized if considering the many ways in which process integration contributes to the enhancement of energy efficiency of many industrial processes as detailed in a previous work (Cardona et al. 2008). Process integration, as a mean for process […]

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Results

For allocation purposes in the animal feed scenario, DOAB molecular composition was compared with that of soybean meal and soy beans to develop displacement ratios based on the protein content of each. Additional information and extended results can be found in a related study published in the proceedings of the 2012 IEEE-ISSST (Borkowski et al. 2012).

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