Category Archives: Tree Born Oils

Suitability of H2 Production from Algae

Algae are one of the oldest life-forms. They are primitive plants, with thalloid body structure, naked reproductive cells, and have chlorophyll ‘a’ as their primary photosynthetic pigment (Lee 1980). Algae structures are primarily for energy conversion without any development beyond cells, and their simple development allows them to adapt to prevailing environmental conditions and prosper in the long term.

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Biogas from Syngas

Anaerobic digestion is suitable for converting virtually all organic materials to methane. However, some more recalcitrant substrates, such as lignocellulosic biomass or other dry wastes (plastic and rubber, etc.), demand (thermo) chemical pre-treatments, which are often costly and do not always substantially improve methane production. Gasification of all kind of compact biomass/wastes, followed by a biological process for the conversion […]

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Life-Cycle Environmental Impacts of Biofuels and Co-products

Gregory Zaimes, Matthew Borkowski and Vikas Khanna Abstract Issues of energy independence and security, global climate change, and the depletion of fossil resources drive research into biofuels and bioproducts. While emerging biofuels and biorefineries pursue lower carbon transportation fuels, careful consideration of a wide range of potential environmental impacts is necessary to avoid unintended consequences. These concerns can be addressed […]

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Biofuels, Co-products and Associated Technologies

Chapter 11 Fermentative Biohydrogen Production Using Microbial Consortia Radhika Singh Abstract Hydrogen offers the long-term potential for an energy system that produces near-zero emissions and is based on domestically available resources. Most of the hydrogen at the present technological development is generated from fossil fuels through thermochemical processes. Biohydrogen production is crucial to sustainable global clean energy supply and a […]

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Fuel Cell Behavior and Half Cell Potentials

The change in fuel cell behavior under varying external resistances (polarization) helps to understand the performance of fuel cell in terms of maximum power density, cell design point, half cell potentials, etc. (Logan et al. 2006; Venkata Mohan et al. 2008a). Polarization is a powerful tool for the analysis and charac­terization of fuel cells. Polarization curve is plotted by considering […]

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Effluent Treatment

Fuel ethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass generates solid wastes, atmospheric emissions, and liquid effluents. The atmospheric emissions mostly correspond to the gas outlet stream from fermenters or integrated bioreactors that is washed with water in the scrubbers in order to recover the volatilized ethanol (see Fig. 16.2). The gases exiting from the scrubbers contain mainly carbon dioxide that is released […]

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Methodology

This study examines the production of algal biodiesel produced via transesterifi­cation and the effects of varying the use of the residual biomass coproduct. The system boundary begins with the cultivation of algal biomass and extends to the delivered fuel product, capital costs for cultivation, extraction, and fuel conversion were excluded. As the ultimate fuel product was to be combusted in […]

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Criticisms of Energy Metrics

Net energy balance and related metrics have been criticized for aggregating dif­ferent types of energy with no adjustment for their differing quality or value (Murphy et al. 2011a; Liska et al. 2009; Liska and Cassman 2008; Murphy et al. 2011b; Dale 2007). The implicit assumption that all energy carriers are equal and can be added together is contradicted by the […]

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Direct Biophotolysis

This biological process utilizes solar energy and photosynthesis system of mic­roalgae to convert water into hydrogen. It uses the same photosynthesis system as present in plants and algae but instead of generating carbon containing products, it produces hydrogen. Here, both Photosystem I (PS I) and Photosystem II (PS II) photosynthetic systems are involved and with the help of sunlight, it […]

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Other Applications

Apart from the above-mentioned characteristics, MFC has other faced such as photosynthetic fuel cells, carbon capture cells, sediment based benthic fuel cells, marine applications, and desalination, plant-based (rhizodeposit based) power generation, biocathode and application as biosensor. However, all these applica­tions are still in the state of infancy and needs deeper understanding for their practical implications. Photosynthetic fuel cells (PhFC) are […]

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