Category Archives: Tree Born Oils

Conclusions and the Way Forward

It is clear that second generation bioethanol can have a more favorable GHG balance. They do not have any effect on food security as they use resources which do affect food supply. The use of grasses or other invasive plants or the use of genetically modified non-food and feed crops could make them more acceptable. However, the technological barriers have […]

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Electron Discharge from the Biocatalyst

Microbes with high electron discharge capability are considered to be electro­chemically active and are crucial in the MFC operation. Electron transfer from the biocatalyst metabolic activities to the anode (intermediary electron acceptor) is catalyzed by two mechanisms, viz., direct electron transfer (DET) and mediated electron transfer (MET), based on the electron carrier involved (Fig. 14.2). DET is possible by means […]

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Ethanol Recovery and Dehydration

The recovery of ethanol produced by different technological configurations and from diverse types of feedstocks is accomplished in a very similar way. The ethanol content in the culture broth resulting from fermentation processes oscil­lates between 2.5 and 10 % (by weight). The utilization of fuel ethanol as a gasoline oxygenate requires a high-purity ethanol, so it is necessary to concentrate […]

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Case Study: LCA of Algal Biodiesel

A comparative well-to-pump LCA was conducted to investigate the life-cycle GHG emissions and FER of algal biodiesel derived from algae cultivated in open raceway ponds. Comprehensive evaluation of production pathways allows for a greater understanding of the potential tradeoffs, environmental impacts, and technical practicality of different algae production options. Additionally, prior algal biofuel LCAs have shown mixed results regarding algae’s […]

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Major Energy Metrics

A variety of metrics are used to quantify the consumption of primary energy in the production of biofuels (Murphy et al. 2011b; Cleveland 2010; Chwalowski 1996). In contrast to the process energy used directly in a given process, primary energy represents the total of all energy resources consumed to produce the materials and energy used in the process. For example, […]

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Different Methods of Biohydrogen Production

Many microorganisms produce hydrogen as their byproduct during anaerobic fermentation processes. Some microorganisms like green algae, cyanobecteria produce enzymes to convert water into hydrogen in the presence of thermal energy source such as sunlight. This process is known as photobiological process. In biological hydrogen production process, hydrogen formation and consumption are

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Other Reduced End Products

Microbial electro synthesis/bioelectrosynthesis is the process of production of chemical compounds through a series of microbially or enzymatically catalyzed reactions in a specially designed electrochemical cell called bioelectrochemical system (BES). Microbially catalyzed synthesis of organic or inorganic compounds in an electrochemical cell where the electricity driven reduction or oxidation of diverse feed stocks. Interaction between biocatalysts and solid electron acceptors […]

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Biobutanol Production from Biomass

Johanna Niemisto, Paula Saavalainen, Ritva Isomaki, Tanja Kolli, Mika Huuhtanen and Riitta L. Keiski Abstract There is a demand for the increased production and usage of biofuels from both environmental and a political point of view. Biobutanol has great potential to become a novel replacement fuel for gasoline and diesel or an additive compound of these fuels in the future. […]

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Parameters in Evaluating BES Performance

19.3.1 Electrode Potential and Power Output All BES processes share a same principle—EAB in the anode chamber oxidize biodegradable substrates and generate electron flow (i. e. current) to reduce the electron acceptors in the cathode chamber. Therefore, the most direct way to evaluate the performance of a BES is the measurement of circuit voltage (V). The current (I) passing through […]

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Microbial Oils

One concept currently under review is the use of algae as an oil producer for the manufacture of biodiesel. Oils of algae, fungi, and bacteria also have been investigated for biodiesel production (Schenk et al. 2008 and Strobel et al. 2008). Microalgae have a high potential as biodiesel precursors because many of them are very rich in oils, sometimes with […]

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