Category Archives: Biofuel Technologies

Comparison of the Main Types of Feedstock

The selection of the suitable feedstock for ethanol production strongly depends on the local conditions. Evidently, North American and European countries have based their ethanol industry on the starchy materials due to their agro-ecological conditions. These conditions are not appropriate for cultivation of sugarcane, the highest yielding feedstock. The use of starchy crops, specifically corn, for bio­ethanol production has provoked […]

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Type I and Type II Primary Walls

The primary cell walls of plants are classified into two major groups: Type I walls (in dicots e. g. all flower plants) and Type II walls (in monocots e. g. grass) with respect to the chemical structures of components, wall architecture and their biosynthetic processes. They vary in several ways; in the complex glycans that interlace and cross-link the cellulose […]

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Introduction to Biofuels

With the depletion of crude oil, attention has gone toward use of natural recov­erable resources for production of biofuels. Public and scientific attention is also driven by factors such as the price, concern over greenhouse gas emissions, as well as support from government subsidies. In 2010, worldwide biofuel production reached 105 billion liters and provided 2.7 % of the fuels […]

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Effective Parameters in Pretreatment

Pretreatment is generally considered as a process for disruption of the naturally resistant structure of lignocellulose that limits the hydrolysis of carbohydrates, i. e., cellulose and hemicellulose (Yang and Wyman 2008). In other words, pre­treatment is a process to remove the lignocelluloses recalcitrance for its biological conversion via microbial or enzymatic processing (Zhu and Pan 2010). The most effective parameters […]

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Engineering Cellulolytic Ability and Product Formation into Organisms with Favorable Attributes

Several yeast species other than S. cerevisiae have innate properties that make them attractive as possible CBP organisms (Lynd et al. 2005). The promise of thermotolerant yeast species as CBP organisms and recent data on ethanol pro­duction from cellulosic and hemicellulosic materials with thermotolerant yeast strains in SSF and CBP was recently reviewed by Hasunuma and Kondo (2012). The A. […]

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Acid Pretreatments

Acid-catalyzed treatment is known to be one of the most effective methods for lignocelluloses pretreatment (McMillan 1994; Wyman 1996; Taherzadeh and Karimi 2008). This is the most applied method for cleavage of glycosidic bonds in hemicellulose (Jacobsen and Wyman 2000). The cleavage of the glycosidic and glucuronosyl linkages can occur under relatively mild conditions while decom­position of the liberated monosaccharides […]

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Cellulase

The degradation of the cellulosic component of lignocellulosic biomasses is car­ried out by hydrolytic enzymes known as cellulases. Cellulase systems consist of three different enzymes; endoglucanases, cellobiohydrolase (CBHs) and b-gluco — sidases (Grassick et al. 2004; Mtui 2009). It has been reported that properties of biomass such as lignin composition, accessibility of the cellulose chains to these cellulases, degree of […]

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Biobutanol

Butanol is a four carbon alcohol (C4H10O). It contains more hydrogen and carbon compared to ethanol (Ramey 2004). Butanol fermentation was first discovered by Pasteur in 1861, and this work was followed by studies on the production of this chemical and feedstock by various investigators in the latter part of the nineteenth

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