Category Archives: Biofuel Technologies

Phenol Oxidases

Phenol oxidases are classified as a range of copper enzymes which do not exhibit glycosyl hydrolase and peptidase activity. They are capable of oxidising phenolic compounds in the presence of molecular O2. The phenol oxidases include the LMEs previously described as well as tyrosinases, catechol oxidases and catalase — phenol oxidases.

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Ethanol from Lignocellulosic Biomass

Lignocellulosic complex is the most abundant biopolymer on the Earth. It is considered that lignocellulosic biomass comprises about 50 % of world biomass and its annual production was estimated at 10-50 billion tons. Many lignocellu — losic materials have been tested for bioethanol production as observed in Table 9.5. In general, prospective lignocellulosic materials for fuel ethanol pro­duction can be […]

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Socioeconomic Impacts of Biodiesel Production

2.5.1 Employment Effects Table 2.4 shows the estimated direct and indirect employment induced by bio­diesel production in Thailand based on the ‘‘hybrid approach’’ i. e., direct employment in agriculture is estimated from the labor costs in FFB production (OAE 2010) and the annual wage of labor for agriculture in Thailand (NSO 2010); while, for palm oil milling and biodiesel production, […]

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The Primary Cell Wall

The major polysaccharides in the primary wall are cellulose, hemicellulose and pectin. During cell expansion, the middle lamella is impregnated with cellulose, hemicellulose, pectin and glycoproteins to form the primary wall (Reiter 2002; Somerville et al. 2004). The primary wall is found at the junction of cells and at the outer edges of secondary walls. It is the first wall […]

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Microbial Glycoside Hydrolases for Biomass Utilization in Biofuels Applications

Gashaw Mamo, Reza Faryar and Eva Nordberg Karlsson Abstract Renewable biomass is predicted to have the potential to meet at least a quarter of the world demand for transportation fuel, but to do so both terrestrial lignocellulosic as well as marine algal resources need to be efficiently utilized. In the processes where these biomasses are converted into different types of […]

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Extraneous Materials

A large number of compounds are available in lignocelluloses, known as extra­neous materials, which can be extracted by means of polar and nonpolar solvents. The composition and content of these materials vary among lignocelluloses spe­cies. Based on their solubility in water, extraneous materials are divided into two categories: extractives or nonextractives (Fan et al. 1982). The most important parts of […]

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Engineering Cellulolytic Ability into Process Organisms

The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has long been employed for the industrial production of ethanol (Kuyper et al. 2005; Van Dijken et al. 2000). Attributes that make it suitable for industrial ethanol production include a high rate of ethanol production from glucose (3.3 g/L/h), high ethanol tolerance, and its GRAS status. However, this yeast species has a number of shortcomings in […]

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Alkaline Pretreatment

NaOH alkali pretreatment for improving in vitro digestibility of straws by rumi­nants are found at least since 1919 (Millett et al. 1976). Alkali pretreatment refers to the application of an alkaline solution such as NaOH, Ca(OH)2, or ammonia to modify the structure and composition of lignocelluloses (Deschamps et al. 1996; Zhao et al. 2008b; Cheng et al. 2008; Glaus and […]

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Hemicellulase

The hemicellulosic regions of lignocellulose are considered more accessible to extracellular fungal enzymes in comparison to the cellulosic and lignin compo­nents as it does not form crystalline structures or microfibrils. This is due to the heterogeneity of hemicellulose polymers within the plant cell wall, the degree of and the particular side chains and branching along the backbone. As a result, […]

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