Category Archives: Biofuel Technologies

Biological Pretreatment

Most pretreatment technologies require exclusive and expensive instruments or equipment that have high energy requirements, depending on the process. In particular, physical and thermochemical processes require abundant energy for biomass conversion. Biological treatment using various types of rot fungi, a safe and environmentally friendly method, is increasingly being advocated as a process that does not require high energy for lignin […]

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Hemicelluloses

Polyoses are the linking material between cellulose and lignin. Unlike cellulose, hemicelluloses consist of different monosaccharide units. In addition, the polymer chains of hemicelluloses have short branches and are amorphous. Because of the amorphous morphology, hemicelluloses are partially soluble or swell in water. The backbone of the chains of hemicelluloses can be a homopolymer (generally con­sisting of single sugar repeat […]

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Cellulase Producing Microorganisms

Cellulase producing microorganisms primarily depend upon simple carbohydrates and are unable to use complex components like lipids and proteins for energy generation (Lynd et al. 2002). Some of the cellulolytic bacteria, cellulomonas and cytophyga, depends upon a variety of carbohydrates in addition to the cellulose (Poulsen and Petersen 1988; Rajoka and Malik 1997). In contrast to anaerobic, cellulolytic species have […]

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Chemical Characteristics

There are four main types of bonds recognized in the lignocellulosic complex. They are (1) Ether, (2) Ester, (3) Carbon-to-carbon, and (4) Hydrogen bonds. These four bonds are the major types of bonds that provide linkages within (intrapolymer linkages), and between the different components of lignocellulosic material to form complex (interpolymer) linkages (Table 1.2) (Faulon et al. 1994).

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