Category Archives: Radioactive waste management and contaminated site clean-up

Know when to assist

Experience also shows that many operations rely on trades from different core businesses than that of the ‘remediator’. In particular, sites often rely on experts for asbestos removal, demolition of buildings, work on hydrol­ogy, management of conventional toxic waste, management of radon in buildings, the maintenance of building structure, etc. ANDRA’s agents have a duty to draw on the external […]

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Liquid and gaseous low level radioactive waste

Low level liquid effluent (LLLE) and gaseous low level waste are dis­charged from nuclear installations in Scotland into the environment within volumetric and radioactivity limits which are specified in authorisations that are granted by SEPA. The site operators are required to manage discharges to be as low as reasonably practicable (ALARP). They are required to produce implementation control documents that […]

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Regulations and standards

18.1.2 Legislative system The policy on regulatory control of RAW management in the United States has evolved through a series of laws establishing federal agencies respon­sible for the safety of radioactive materials. Federal legislation is enacted by Congress and signed into law by the President. US laws apply to all 50 states and its territories. Table 18.1 identifies key US […]

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Transuranic waste and the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

TRU waste is a type of RAW that contains elements with atomic numbers greater than uranium (DOE, 2009). This waste consists primarily of clothing, tools, rags, residues, soil, debris, and other materials contaminated with plutonium; it may also be mixed with hazardous components. There are two categories of TRU waste: CH TRU waste can be handled by workers under very […]

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Intermediate-level waste (ILW)

ILW is waste which has limited heat generation capacity that need not be considered for its disposal or in its disposal option (typically below 2 kW/m3) with intermediate short-lived and/or intermediate long-lived radionuclide concentrations. ILW consists mainly of irradiated uranium (uranium, actinides, other activation products and fission products) in smaller quantities, or cooled irradiated uranium or in the form of […]

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Sources, types and quantities of radioactive waste

Radioactive wastes arise from the generation of electricity in nuclear power stations and from the use of radioactive materials in industry, medicine, research, and military. There is a wide spectrum of wastes, from those that contain high concentrations of radioactive materials, to general industry and laboratory wastes which are only lightly contaminated with activity.

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Nuclear energy in Japan

Japan has carried out nuclear power generation research since the middle of the 1950s. A test power reactor, the Japan Power Demonstration Reactor (JPDR), started operation in 1963 and Tokai-1 Nuclear Power Plant (NPP), the first commercial reactor, went into operation in 1966 with a generation capacity of 166 MWe. Currently, about 50 commercial nuclear reactors, predominantly boiling water reactors […]

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Effects of released radiation on food, environment and human health

The Fukushima NPP accident resulted in the spread of radionuclides into the atmosphere. The radionuclides were volatilized by the high temperature in the reactor core and during the explosions and fires. In addition, seawater containing non-volatile activation products and fuel rod materials may have been released into the subsurface and ocean environment [22]. The fate and potential transport mechanisms of […]

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Effects of the underground nuclear explosions on the environment

When a camouflet explosion occurs under high temperature (over a million degrees Kelvin) and high pressure (order of several million atmospheres), evaporation and melting of rock occurs in the region where the charge was laid, resulting in a boiler chamber having a shape similar to a three­dimensional ellipsoid. The effective radius of this cavity is 10-40 m. The cavity wall […]

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Sources, types and classification of wastes

15.1.1 Waste sources and categories The various types of RAW are classified according to the half-lives and radioactivity levels of the main radionuclides they contain, to their physical and chemical characteristics, as well as to their origins. Half-lives are divided into very-short (less than 100 days), short (between 100 days and 31 years) and long (over 31 years).

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