Category Archives: Radioactive waste management and contaminated site clean-up

France: experience of radioactive waste (RAW) management and contaminated site clean-up

R. P OIS S O N, Agence Nationale pour la gestion des Dechets Radioactifs (ANDRA), France DOI: 10.1533/978085709446.2.489 Abstract: This chapter presents the French experiences of contaminated site clean-up and remediation. Radioactive waste management in France is discussed in general terms including the classification of waste. The history of the French waste management organization including site remediation is then discussed, […]

Read more

EPA authorized states

The EPA delegates authorities to states in two areas of RAW management. NESHAPs regulations are based on the requirements of the Clean Air Act, and the authority for delegating compliance responsibility to the individual states is described by law. A state must have emission limits at least as stringent as the federal EPA national standards, although most states have not […]

Read more

Regulatory approach

The Canadian regulatory approach to the safety of RAW management is based on three principles: life cycle responsibility and licensing, in-depth defence, and multiple barriers. The CNSC uses a comprehensive licensing system for the management of radioactive waste, which is regulated during its entire life cycle — from site preparation, construction and operation to decommissioning and, finally, abandonment. It is […]

Read more

Conditioning

Conditioning consists of those operations that produce a waste package suitable for handling, transport, storage or disposal. Prior to conditioning RAW for storage or disposal, the pre-disposal management waste accept­ance requirements (WAR) and the disposal facility WAC have to be con­sidered to ensure compliance with the storage facility or disposal site requirements, respectively. Where final disposal criteria do not yet […]

Read more

Decommissioning and decontamination (D&D) strategy, practice and issues

Korean decommissioning and decontamination (D&D) work on the retired research reactors KRR-1 and 2 and the uranium conversion facility (UCF) at KAERI is under way. Hundreds of tons of metallic and concrete wastes are expected from the D&D of these facilities. Therefore, countermeasures are being taken to deal with the amount of waste generated by dismantling these retired nuclear facilities. […]

Read more

Radioactive wastes for disposal with institutional control

Methods of disposal with institutional control include near-surface disposal without artificial barriers, near-surface disposal with artificial barriers and sub-surface disposal with artificial barriers. Near-surface disposal with arti­ficial barriers is already used for LLW generated in commercial nuclear reactor facilities. Near-surface disposal without artificial barriers is being partly implemented while the reactor operators improve safety regulations on the remainder of the […]

Read more

US tank wastes

In 1996 the first plant built in the US for vitrification of defence-related HLW, the Defence Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL), commenced operation. Unlike the British and French civil HLW vitrification plants, which operate using Inconel 601-lined induction furnaces, the DWPF operates a Joule-heated ceramic-lined furnace, as will the new facility, the Waste Vitrification Plant […]

Read more

Problematic cases and lessons learned

Problems of RAW management in Eastern Europe vary from country to country. The management of RAW systems in both the Czech and Slovak Republics from operation and decommissioning of nuclear facilities was influenced by the Soviet design concept of waste management of WWER reactors, which allowed for the fact that virtually all RAW will be stored until decommissioning of the […]

Read more
1 2 3 53