Introduction Although, at the beginning of nuclear energy deployment, many different reactor systems were proposed and more or less tested, only a few of them became standard in the Western hemisphere: light-water reactors like the PWR (pressurized water reactor) or BWR (boiling water reactor), heavy — water reactors of the CANDU (Canadian deuterium uranium) type and, finally, the sodium cooled […]

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The possible role of accelerator driven subcritical reactors

When compared with critical reactors, ADSRs have two specific charac­teristics. 1. If well designed, they prevent any possible criticality accidents. This has led their most vocal advocates [45] to propose that they should replace critical reactors altogether. In a less radical but also more common approach it has been proposed [38, 46] to take advantage of this sub­criticality in order […]

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Thick-target neutron multiplicities

Thick-target neutron yields are, evidently, of great interest for hybrid reactor designs. As mentioned above, most measurements resort to a measure of the number of neutrons exiting from a large piece of material. The recent measurements of Hilscher et al. [110] use a large, gadolinium loaded, liquid scintillator. Such detectors allow an event by event measurement of the neutron multiplicity, […]

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Drilled samples

In the case of radioactive elements brought to the surface along with the core samples, the first effect to be considered would be the irradiation of the workers through direct contact with the ‘waste’ samples brought up. Other scenarios impacting a larger group of population can be devised. Direct ingestion of the samples is obviously not to be considered. Direct […]

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