Category Archives: Modern Power Station Practice

Radiation shielding

Shielding against radiation from the irradiated fuel elements is provided by storing the elements under pond water, typically of 6 to 7 m in depth. Controls are applied to the stacking of fuel skips, this being normally limited to double stacking. Interlocks on the pond cranes and other equipment limit the height to which the fuel skips and individual elements […]

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Reactor simulators

The problems of providing the necessary ‘on job’ training for the operator on a base-load station make simulation facilities essential, and these have been provided in the CEGB from the beginning of the nu­clear programme. Basic generic simulation was pro­vided for the magnox reactors up to 1987 by means of an analogue computer-driven simulator (see Fig

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Nuclear Installations Act

The regulation of safety of civil nuclear power plants in the United Kingdom has been enacted in the main — by successive Nuclear Installations Acts, and amend­ments and regulations since 1959. Responsibility for administering the legislation rested with different Gov­ernment Departments until 1974, when responsibility for nuclear regulation was transferred in January 1975 to the Health and Safety Executive established […]

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Doses to the public and operating staff

The fundamental requirement in controlling the radia­tion exposure of operating staff during normal opera­tion of the power station is to ensure that doses re­ceived by operators are kept below the limits recom­mended by ICRP and, further, to keep those doses as low as reasonably practicable (ALARP). An annual target figure for the effective dose-equivalent for in­dividual members of the power […]

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Contamination control

Radioactive contamination refers simply to the pre­sence of radioactive material (as opposed to radiation) in places we would rather it was not there. Ideally, if we are able to contain or seal all the radioactive material on a power station so that there is no possibility of escape, then there would be no contamination to worry about. There would still […]

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Population dose assessment

In the event of an emergency, action would be taken to prevent emergency reference levels (ERL) of ra­diation dose being exceeded. However, experience at Three Mile Island showed that the public would no longer be satisfied with the information that they had not been exposed to a ‘significant level of radiation’. It was therefore decided that, for the recovery of […]

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Cooling ponds

These are constructed in reinforced concrete and with the aid of two pond gates can be separated into three bays — a flask bay for the storage of road transport flasks and two skip bays. The latter contain rectangular box-shaped stainless steel storage skips divided into compartments by fixed boron steel in­serts, so that each is capable of holding 20 […]

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