Category Archives: Modern Power Station Practice

New fuel

The magnox fuel element is essentially a cylindrical bar of natural uranium encased in a magnesium al­loy can. Both the uranium and the can material have additional trace elements to provide the required met­allurgical properties. The bar is about 25 mm diameter by 750 mm in length (the Berkeley and Hunterston elements are about half this length) and a weight […]

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Manipulators

Many types of manipulators have been developed by the CEGB and there has been increasing use made of computers for control and display purposes. The ‘snake’ is a_multi-link manipulator in which the in­dividual units are motorised to enable the whole to be manoeuvred through a tortuous route. Computer control is employed to guide each link through the same path as […]

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Main provisions

Four primarv types of package (i. e., container or pack­aging, together with contents) are defined: Excepted, Industrial, Type A and Type u. In a graded approach the design requirements and, where appropriate, stand­ard tests and performance criteria are specified. They become more stringent as the hazard represented by the contents increases. Thus there are no specific per­formance standards for the […]

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Contamination control

Radioactive contamination refers simply to the pre­sence of radioactive material (as opposed to radiation) in places we would rather it was not there. Ideally, if we are able to contain or seal all the radioactive material on a power station so that there is no possibility of escape, then there would be no contamination to worry about. There would still […]

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Population dose assessment

In the event of an emergency, action would be taken to prevent emergency reference levels (ERL) of ra­diation dose being exceeded. However, experience at Three Mile Island showed that the public would no longer be satisfied with the information that they had not been exposed to a ‘significant level of radiation’. It was therefore decided that, for the recovery of […]

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Nuclear Installations Act

The regulation of safety of civil nuclear power plants in the United Kingdom has been enacted in the main — by successive Nuclear Installations Acts, and amend­ments and regulations since 1959. Responsibility for administering the legislation rested with different Gov­ernment Departments until 1974, when responsibility for nuclear regulation was transferred in January 1975 to the Health and Safety Executive established […]

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Doses to the public and operating staff

The fundamental requirement in controlling the radia­tion exposure of operating staff during normal opera­tion of the power station is to ensure that doses re­ceived by operators are kept below the limits recom­mended by ICRP and, further, to keep those doses as low as reasonably practicable (ALARP). An annual target figure for the effective dose-equivalent for in­dividual members of the power […]

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