Category Archives: Nuclear Reactors 1

Executive Summary

Currently, there are two definitions of such reactors widely used in the literature: small and medium-sized reactors (SMRs) and small modular reactors. Small modular reactors have attracted much attention since 2008 when several very small reactors (less than 125 MWe) were being designed in the United States. In this study, the general class of reactors with effective electric power of […]

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Economy offactory fabricated units

Some reactor components, systems or modules are entirely factory-fabricated and are subsequently transported and assembled on-site. For example, some small capacity nuclear plants foresee factory fabrication of the full nuclear steam supply system. In this case, the above-mentioned parameters y and z cannot apply and the productivity effect (factor k) becomes dominant.

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Reduced emergency planning requirements

The off-site emergency planning measures provide a necessary protection at Level 5 of the defence-in depth “Mitigation of radiological consequences of significant releases of radioactive materials” [9.8, 9.9] and generally include the designation of a zone (or several zones) around the plant with certain restrictions on residence and activities, as well as planning of the evacuation and relocation and other […]

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Brazil

In Brazil about 80% of electricity is generated by hydropower with relatively low generating costs, see Figure 7.5 and Table 7.8. The second main source of electricity in Brazil is fossil fuel. In 2008, about 6.26% of electricity was generated from natural gas, 5.25% from wood and 3.79% from oil [7.4].

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Safety Designs of Advanced SMRs

8.1 Introduction This chapter presents a summary of safety design features for advanced SMRs belonging to different technology lines categorised in Section 4.2. SMR designs that had already been deployed and gained some positive operating experience are not addressed, as the mere fact of their deployment and successful operation is a proof of their conformity to national safety norms. An […]

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Overview of SMR designs considered

Currently available SMRs At the time of this report (2011), there are eight proven SMR designs available for commercial deployment. Among these SMRs, the Canadian CANDU-6 and EC6 and the three Indian PHWR-220, 540 and 700 are pressure-tube type heavy water reactors, while the Russian KLT-40S and the Chinese QP-300 and CNP-600 are pressurised water reactors. The CANDU-6 and the […]

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Overnight capital costs for land-based versus barge-mounted SMRs

Reference [9.11] provides a direct comparison of the overnight costs for a twin-unit land-based and a twin-unit barge-mounted NPP with the VBER-300 reactors of 325 MWe gross electric output each. According to the data provided by the vendors (see Table 6.2), the overnight capital cost for a barge-mounted plant is 20% lower than those for a land-based plant. However a […]

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