Category Archives: NUCLEAR ELECTRIC POWER

TIDAL ENERGY

Tidal movements result from an interaction of the gravitational fields of the sun and moon with the earth’s water masses. The global potential for tidal power is an estimated [22] 6 TW, but there are just a few special locations for its economic exploitation. Specifically they have the appropriate orientation to access the Coriolis forces created by the earth’s rotation […]

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PASSIVE SAFETY SYSTEMS FOR WATER REACTORS

Passive safety systems consist entirely of passive components, or use active elements in a very limited way to initiate subsequently all passive operations [108]. Manual intervention is excluded in all cases. Because they eliminate multiple pumps with their independent and redundant power supplies some proposed passive systems appear potentially more cost-effective and reliable than current active sys­tems [109]. Accordingly, the […]

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WIND ENERGY

Wind is a costless, inexhaustible but intermittent energy source. Early twentieth century wind turbines were domestic multibladed fixed-pitch metal machines. Though aviation developments during World War I led to higher efficiency two — and three-bladed rotors [28], output powers before 1945 were generally no greater than 5 KW. A notable exception was the 1.25 MW variable-pitch machine on Grandpa’s Knob […]

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CORE DEBRIS-BED COOLING IN WATER REACTORS

During Severe Accidents quantities of corium as a melt or slurry might slump into the lower head of the pressure vessel.[114] Its sensible and decay heat would then be transferred to the structure whose creep strength progressively decreases with temperature. To mitigate this potential cause of a catastrophic rupture, some PWRs have their lower structures submerged in water [315]. Temperature […]

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GRID POWER SYSTEMS AND FREQUENCY CONTROL

Grid-connected power stations form a diverse interconnection of fossil, nuclear and renewable units whose objective is to meet the area’s power demands as safely, economically and securely as feasi­ble. On a continuous basis centralized management selects genera­tion from those available units best able to meet these objectives. Sinusoidal ac power at nominal frequencies of 50 or 60 Hz has many […]

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FOSSIL-FIRED POWER GENERATION

The global industrial revolution in the late nineteenth century originated in the United Kingdom with coal powering steam engines and iron smelting. Now in the twenty-first century electricity generation by coal is constrained by economics, carbon emission penalties and the availability of cleaner natural gas [49]. Though coal remains the planet’s largest fossil-fuel resource [55] its large-scale utilization is presently […]

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