Category Archives: NUCLEAR ELECTRIC POWER

Nuclear Electric Power

J. Brian Knowles If the industries and lifestyles of economically developed nations are to be preserved, then their aging, high-capacity power stations will soon need replacing. Those industrialized nations with intentions to lower their carbon emissions are proposing nuclear and renewable energy sources to fill the gap. As well as UK nuclear plant proposals, China plans an impressive 40% new-build […]

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Primary Containment Integrity and Impact Studies

6.1 PRIMARY CONTAINMENT INTEGRITY Safety assessments for nuclear plants include the effects of Severe Accidents1 on the integrity of the reactor vessel (the primary contain­ment). Water and fast reactor vessels are potentially subject to short time-scale pressure and fluid-impact loadings from MFCI. In addition, fast reactor vessels might suffer slower pressure-induced loadings over several seconds due to conventional vaporization by […]

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MATHEMATICAL DESCRIPTIONS OF A NEUTRON POPULATION

Transport theory [58] offers the most accurate description of a reactor’s neutron population in terms of a vector flux, but it has stringent computational demands. However, other than very close to strong absorbers or emitters,[30] neutronic velocity vectors are approximately isotropic and neutron migration can be readily computed when treated like the diffusion of gas molecules. Accordingly, with appropriate boundary […]

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Energy Sources, Grid Compatibility, Economics, and the Environment

1.1 BACKGROUND If the industries and accustomed lifestyles of the economically well — developed nations are to be preserved, their aging high-capacity (0100 MW) electric power plants will soon require replacement with reliable units having lower carbon emissions and environmental impacts. Legally binding national targets [1] on carbon emissions were set out by the European Union in 2008 to mitigate […]

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THE PI-THEOREM, SCALE MODELS, AND REPLICAS

Studies of the impacts between missiles and structures have been a long and continuing military activity. An early example is the evolution of square-cornered Norman castles into the rounded structures of Edward I so as to better resist the impact of large catapulted rocks. By the sixteenth century mathematics and chemical explosives had enabled the embryonic formation of modern-style artillery […]

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EXAMPLES OF POTENTIAL SEVERE ACCIDENTS IN FAST REACTORS AND PWRs WITH THEIR CONSEQUENCES

Fast and thermal reactors with the same fuel burn-up have very similar fission product inventories, but the most likely causes of their atmo­spheric release in Severe Accidents are radically different. In a pool — type fast reactor, the core and all primary circuit components are contained within two strong nested tanks, which can be isolated from the secondary sodium pumps […]

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GEOTHERMAL ENERGY

Geothermal energy stems from impacts that occurred during the accretive formation of our planet, the radioactive decay of its constitu­ents and incident sunlight. Its radioactive component is estimated [2] as about 30 TW, which is about half the total and twice the present global electricity demand. However, commercial access is achievable only at relatively few locations along the boundaries of […]

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