Category Archives: Nuclear and Radiochemistry


The Ra-226 isotope was discovered and prepared by Marie Curie. This isotope has been applied to the study of the general properties of radioactivity and radiation. Ra-226 has been prepared by coprecipitation with very insoluble lead and barium salts. The coprecipitate has been purified by fractionated crystallization. Metallic radium has been produced by the electrolysis of molten salt in 1910.

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The Derivate Isotope Dilution Method

If the radioactive species of the substance to be analyzed is not available, the iso­tope dilution method cannot be applied directly. In this case, the substance to be analyzed is reacted with a radioactive reagent. This radioactive product can be then subjected to the reverse isotope dilution method (described in Section The method, therefore, combines the preparation of a […]

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1SF-FDG PET Studies with PET/CT

At present, most PET studies apply 2-(18F)-FDG (Fluoro-2-Deoxy-D-Glucose). F-18 is preferred for clinical studies because of its favorable half-life (see Table 12.6). Since many kinds of tumor cells have increased glucose metabolism, the most com­mon indication is searching for tumors, especially to explore whether lymph node and distant metastases are present and to identify remnants or recurrent tumors after therapy. […]

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Diffusion in Solid/Solution Systems: Transport of Radioactive Isotopes in Porous Systems

Each substance in the environment, including radioactive isotopes, interacts with groundwater and geological formations (soils and rocks). Transport in the pores of rocks and soils occurs via the migration of water-soluble materials. The migration in porous solid media is influenced both by hydrological processes and by the inter­action between the soluble substances and the geological formations. The migration of a […]

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Irradiation with Electron and Beta Radiation

As mentioned in Section 4.4.2, electrons are emitted from the nuclei as a result of radioactive decay and from the electron orbitals. The electrons emitted from nuclei are called “beta particles.” Electrons emitted from the extranuclear shell are called electrons and are designated by e_. The two terms “beta particle” and “electron” differentiate the location of the emission. The main […]

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