Category Archives: Nuclear and Radiochemistry

Sulfur-35 (S-35)

The production of S-35 is similar to the production of carrier-free P-32; it is pro­duced in the 35Cl(n, p)35S nuclear reaction by irradiating the KCl target. The irradi­ated KCl is dissolved in water, while sulfur is dissolved as sulfate. Chloride and sulfate are separated by anion exchange. The half-life of 35S isotope is 87.9 days, and it emits weak beta […]

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Mossbauer Spectroscopy

The principle of the recoil-less nuclear resonance absorption, or Mossbauer spec­troscopy, was discussed in detail in Section 5.4.7. Here, the emphasis is on its chemical applications: Mossbauer spectroscopy allows the analysis of chemical compounds that contain elements which have a Mossbauer nuclide. From a practi­cal point of view, the most important is iron, the Mossbauer nuclide of which is 57Fe. […]

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Chemical Limitations

Besides the physical requirements listed previously, we can utilize a radionuclide only if a suitable molecule can be labeled with it. There are very important classes of mole­cules in the body that are so small that we cannot label them with any gamma-emitting radioisotope without altering their structure, i. e., they do not contain any atom with a suitable gamma-emitting […]

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Biological Effects of Radiation

13.4.1 Dose Units Previously in this book, the radioactive radiation has been characterized by the half-life, the type, the energy or energy distribution of the emitted particles or elec­tromagnetic radiation, and the activity. These properties are not sufficient to char­acterize the biological effects of radiation because the effects are due to the absorbed energy and the subsequent material changes induced. […]

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Study of Interfacial Reactions

Because of their fairly high sensitivity, radiotracer methods are widely applied in all fields where the interface plays an important role in the reactions (interfacial chemistry, colloid chemistry, heterogeneous catalysis, etc.). The surface quantity of the substances is about 10-9—10-8 mol/cm2; thus, the study of the interfacial reac­tions requires analytical methods that are able to detect and precisely measure the […]

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Exploration of Leaks

Utilizing sensitivity of the radioactive tracers, it is possible to detect leakages in technological equipment or pipes far earlier than appearance of the leaked materials would be observed in the contaminated component or would endanger product quality or cause any technical risk. For instance, if there is a leakage in a heat exchanger, where migration of the cooling agent into […]

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Parts of a Gamma Camera

In this section, we describe the main components of a “traditional” Anger camera: a gamma camera with analog signal processing (Figure 12.4). 1. The collimator is a sheet or disc made of lead, containing (mostly parallel) holes. Radiation arriving from the patient’s body can get across it only along the holes (i. e., in a perpendicular direction); otherwise, the septa […]

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