Category Archives: Nuclear fuel cycle science and engineering

Conversion

Conversion is the process of manufacturing pure UF6 from the yellowcake generated by the mining and refining process. It requires the use of a combination of fluorine and HF in aqueous or gaseous form to fluorinate the oxide feed. There is one established process where this is carried out using fluorine gas alone. Purification is carried out along the way […]

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Pressure suppression containments

Westinghouse developed a pressure suppression containment, which uses ice to reduce the pressure. The loop pipework is in the lower part of the containment but the operating floor effectively separates the lower levels of the containment from the open main dome area. The two volumes are linked by a structure surrounding the NSSS, which contains refrigerated baskets of ice. The […]

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Modelling fuel behaviour under irradiation

The modelling of fuel behaviour under irradiation is described in this section. The requirements are first addressed in Section 14.3.1. The modelling approaches, and the commonly used computer programs which implement these approaches, are then discussed in Sections 14.3.2 and 14.3.3. Finally, the advantages and limitations of fuel behaviour modelling, and the future trends in such modelling, are described in […]

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Dedicated transmuter reactors

A ‘dedicated’ transmuter reactor13 should be able to burn any amount of TRUs or MAs, according to the chosen strategy. ‘Transmutation’ in this case means essentially ‘fission’. In order to compare the ‘transmutation’ effectiveness of different systems one has to compare the system performance at the same power (i. e. at the same number of fissions). Then, what really matters […]

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Waste classification and disposal route

Practical experience has shown that the efficiency of radioactive waste management is greatly improved if the system of waste classification is aligned with the proposed method of disposal. Because near-surface disposal is reserved for short­lived waste (half-life less than about 30 years), this requires that the system should reflect the half-life of the radionuclides in the waste. The classification scheme […]

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The role of international bodies in regulating radioactive material transport safety

The transport of dangerous goods has been subject to regulation for many years. National regulations governing these materials are known to have existed over 225 years ago. However, not long after the end of World War II, inter-modal problems were increasingly being encountered where dangerous goods were trans-shipped. It was recognized that in the interests of safety and commercial economics, […]

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