Category Archives: Principles of Fusion Energy

Inertial Confinement

A confinement method with apparently more merit than the aforementioned is inertial confinement fusion, involving compression of a small fusion fuel pellet to high density and temperature by external laser or ion beams, Fig.4.1. The density — temperature conditions so achieved are expected to provide for a pulse of fusion energy before pellet disassembly. The incident laser or ion beam […]

Read more

Magnetic Pinch

One of the simplest systems for magnetic containment is the pinch concept; here the plasma carries an electric current and is confined by the magnetic field induced by this current. As the current is increased, the larger magnetic field compresses the plasma and also raises its temperature by Joule-heating. Hence, confinement and heating is simultaneously provided. For that, extremely large […]

Read more

Radioactivation

In addition to normal structural considerations, it is necessary to evaluate neutron-induced radiation damage and radioactivation effects in the selection of both structural components and coolants. As discussed previously, radiation damage occurs by atom displacement and by nuclear transmutation involving primarily those producing 4He; as expected the damage is most severe in the first — wall and associated structures on […]

Read more

Matter and Energy

It is a common observation that matter and energy are closely related. For example, a mass of water flowing into the turbines of a hydro-electric plant leads to the generation of electricity; the rearrangement of hydrogen, oxygen, and carbon in chemical compounds in an internal combustion engine generates power to move a car; a neutron-induced splitting of a heavy nucleus […]

Read more

Continuity and Diffusion

As a first fluidic description of a medium containing fusion fuel ions and sustaining fusion reactions, we consider a characterization which emphasizes particle mobility. Consider therefore an arbitrary volume V containing several time-varying particle populations Nj*(t), N2 (t), …, Nj*(t), …, each species characterized by some macroscopic kinetic property such as temperature. We take the volume’s surface to be non-reentrant […]

Read more

Rho-R Parameter

Some useful parameter estimates about inertial confinement fusion can be obtained by an analysis of selected particle kinetics and energy transfer processes. Consider, therefore, a spherically symmetric pressure wave converging towards the pellet centre. Suppose that ignition and bum conditions are attained when the radius of the compressed pellet is Rb and hold over a bum time tb, during which […]

Read more

Satellite Extension

The hybrid reactor discussed above is characterized by a blanket which sustains both fissile fuel breeding as well as fission reactions. This latter function assigns some fission reactor characteristics to the blanket and consequently may impose similar safety considerations such as possible criticality or loss-of-coolant accidents and fission product release. In order to minimize these problems, it is possible to […]

Read more

Sigma-V Parameter

The fusion reaction rate density expression of Eq.(2.23) is very restrictive since all particles were taken to possess a constant speed and their motion was assumed to be monodirectional. However, the general case of an ensemble of particles possessing a range of speeds and moving in various directions can be introduced by extending Eq.(2.23) to include a summation over all […]

Read more
1 2 3 4 5 11