Category Archives: Nuclear Power and the Environment

Management of Land Contaminated by the Nuclear Legacy

RICHARD KIMBER,* FRANCIS R. LIVENS AND JONATHAN R. LLOYD ABSTRACT The widespread spread use of nuclear materials over the past 60 years has lead to anthropogenic release of radionuclides into the environment. The release of such contaminants is currently of great public concern and scientific interest worldwide. Contamination has arisen on sites involved in both military and civilian uses of […]

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International Experience

3.2.1 Suitable Host Geologies Globally, at least 39 countries have produced significant amounts of HAW and of these, 25 have chosen geological disposal as their long term HAW management pathway, and a further six have expressed a preference for geological disposal. However, whilst the current implementation pathway for geological disposal is relatively recent in the UK, several countries are more […]

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Nuclear Fuel Recycling

As outlined earlier, a large proportion of spent uranium fuel is potentially reusable. The vast majority is still uranium which, although reduced in fissile content, contains residual enrichment and can be recycled. Plutonium can also be recovered for use in MOX or other fuels. In addition, recycling of used fuel may reduce waste volumes for disposal and/or allow removal of […]

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Bioremediation

Biological treatments, referred to as bioremediation, encompass several tech­niques which can involve the redox transformation, biological accumulation or breakdown of a contaminant. Chemical speciation (oxidation state and com­plex form) is one of the primary controls on the mobility of metal contaminants in the environment, affecting both their solubility and reactivity with surfaces. For example, the metal chromium is mobile and […]

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Nuclear Fuel Cycle

The other major source of radioactive waste and contamination is the nuclear fuel cycle.2,7 By volume, the largest source of contamination arises from uranium mining and milling.15 Uranium mining has produced an estimated 937 x 106m3 of tailings, with activities ranging from <1 to > 100 Bq g 1.16 The waste contains not only uranium, but also uranium decay products, […]

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Justification

There are two different approaches to applying the principle of justification in situations involving occupational and public exposures, which depend upon whether or not the source can be directly controlled. The first approach is used in the introduction of new activities where radiological protection is planned in advance and the necessary actions can be taken in relation to the source. […]

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