Variables affecting tube natural frequencies

The tube natural frequencies are affected by tube-to-baffle hole clearance, axial stress, fins, span length, span shape (straight, U-tube), support type, temperature and tube vibration (Chenoweth, 1976, Elliot & Park, 1973, Pettigrew et al., 1986, Simpson et al., 1974, Tanaka & Takahara, 1981, TEMA Standards, 8th edition). At about one tenth of TEMA allowable clearance, the frequency is about 7% […]

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Energy planning, assessment and decision-making

In a very general terms, when one gets involved in planning it is strongly recommended to consult the theoretical background to the topic and its integration with strategic evaluation. As an initial and philosophical reading one may choose Nigel Taylor’s article Planning theory and the philosophy of planning (Taylor, 1980) where the author provides an overview and explanation of the […]

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Flow regimes

Many researchers have attempted the prediction of flow regimes in two-phase vertical flow. As yet, a much smaller group has examined flow regimes in cross-flow over tube bundles. Some of the first experiments were carried out by I. D.R. Grant (Collier, 1979) as it was the only available map at the time. Early studies in two-phase cross-flow used the Grant […]

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Approach used for IRIS

1.1 Safety-by-Design™ concept The IRIS designers used the Safety-by-Design™ philosophy from its inception in 1999. Such a designing approach had been outlined in detail in previous works (Carelli, 2005), (Carelli, 2004); here it is suffice to remember that the key idea of the Safety-by-Design™ concept is to physically eliminate the possibility of occurrence or to reduce consequences of accidents, rather […]

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Excitation mechanisms

1.1 Fluid-elastic instability Fluid-elastic instability is by far the most dangerous excitation mechanism in heat exchanger tube bundles and the most common cause of tube failures. The forces associated with fluid — elastic instability exist only because of the motion of the body. (Price, 1995) has presented comprehensive review on fluid-elastic instability of cylinder arrays in cross-flow. According to Price, […]

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