Category Archives: NUCLEAR CHEMICAL ENGINEERING

DUAL-TEMPERATURE WATER-HYDROGEN SULFIDE EXCHANGE PROCESS

8.1 Principle of Process To circumvent the high cost of chemical reflux, Geib [C3] in Germany and Spevack [S6] in the United States conceived of the dual-temperature system for providing reflux by purely physical means. The principle of the dual-temperature process using the water-hydrogen sulfide reaction is shown in Fig. 1325. The cold tower of Fig. 13.25 performs the same […]

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TYPES OF CASCADE

A cascade like Fig. 12.12, in which no attempt is made to reprocess the partially depleted tails streams leaving each stage, will be called a simple cascade. In a simple cascade the feed stream for one stage is the heads stream from the next lower stage of the cascade. This type of cascade connection is used in the lower stages […]

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THREE-COMPONENT ISOTOPE SEPARATION

Although most isotope separation problems involve only two components, it is occasionally necessary to consider the effect of one or more additional components on cascade design or performance. Examples are the effect of the 0.0058 percent 234 U present in natural uranium, the 236 U present in uranium recovered from a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant, the three isotopes found naturally […]

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EXCHANGE PROCESSES FOR SEPARATION OF LITHIUM ISOTOPES

Saito [SI] has patented separation of lithium isotopes by countercurrent exchange between lithium amalgam and lithium chloride or bromide dissolved in dimethyl formamide or other organic solvent. Arkenbout [A2] has measured a separation factor of 1.05 for this process, with 6 Li concentrating in the amalgam phase. With countercurrent flow through a packed column, natural lithium (7.5 percent 6Li) was […]

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Final Concentration of Deuterium by Distillation of Water

Although water distillation is not competitive with other processes for primary concentration of deuterium from natural water, owing to the high energy consumption and the large number of towers used by this process, it is the preferred method for final concentration of deuterium from water previously enriched to several percent deuterium. In this high-enrichment range, energy consumption or equipment size […]

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Mixing Efficiency

Because the atom fraction of light component in the net transport of gas through the barrier, v, is greater than the atom fraction of light component in the gas at the high-pressure face of the barrier, x", there must be a difference between the average composition of the gas flowing past the high-pressure side of the barrier, x(, and the […]

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Deuterium

Of the three moderators that make possible a fission chain reaction in natural uranium, heavy water, graphite, or beryllium, heavy water has become the preferred material. It is used both as coolant and moderataor in heavy-water reactors, which are the exclusive source of nuclear power in Canada, Argentina, and Pakistan, are being used in India, and are being considered in […]

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