Category Archives: A. Worrall

Major components of an I&C system

The major components in an I&C system include the primary or sensing element, the transmitter, the processing electronics, and the actuation devices. The primary/sensing element is the device that senses the process. For example, a sensing element may be the temperature sensing device, or the pressure sensing device. The transmitter is the device that converts the physical parameter being sensed […]

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Dimension 2: technology characteristics

Technology characteristics can be grouped into two main categories — technical characteristics and context of use. 7.6.2.1 Technical characteristics These are concerned mainly with the advantages and disadvantages of specific technologies and the human factors considerations. These would include the performance criteria listed below. Most advantages and disadvantages of technology can be evaluated objectively simply by comparing features and performance […]

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B&W 1ST facility

The B&W mPower IST facility located in Bedford County, Virginia, USA, includes a scaled prototype of the B&W mPower reactor. All of the technical features of the B&W mPower integral reactor are included in the IST. The multi-year testing will collect data to verify the reactor design and safety performance and support B&W’s licensing activities with the NRC. The reactor […]

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Construction cost estimation

To evaluate the construction costs that, as said, represent the main component of nuclear LCOE, two approaches are usually adopted: top-down cost estimation and bottom-up cost estimation. • Top-down estimation. The cost is calculated starting from a reference, known cost value, then considering the most important cost drivers that characterize the economics of that specific technology to derive scaled or […]

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International certification of SMRs

At the 6th INPRO Dialogue Forum, the IAEA recommended consideration of international certification of SMRs. This long-term recommendation must recognize and integrate with the preservation of sovereign authority for licensing. The aviation industry is recognized as a credible model for international certification of airplanes. It may be a difficult task for the international nuclear community to develop a similar certification […]

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System efficiency through ‘load-dynamic’ operation

A nuclear hybrid energy system would operate dynamically. In this sense, the system could be considered ‘load-following,’ in that the electricity produced would match the grid demand; however, the system is perhaps better described as ‘load-dynamic.’ Rather than modify the system production to match grid demand by varying the reactor power level (which would describe a load-following reactor), the system […]

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Olefins via methanol production

Olefins are made from a light olefin (ethylene and propylene). They are the backbone of the petrochemical market and are consumed in the production of plastics. The conventional process uses coal to make syngas that is converted into methanol. The methanol is used in the olefin synthesis process to create ethylene and propylene with a variety of natural gas components. […]

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Very high temperature reactor (VHTR) system

The Korean government set up a long-term plan for the hydrogen economy in 2005 corresponding to the rapid climate changes and heavy reliance on the imported fossil fuel. Korea launched a nuclear hydrogen project utilizing very high temperature reactors (VHTRs) in 2004. The preliminary studies in 2004 and 2005 have identified the key technological areas. Based on the studies, VHTR […]

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In-core fuel management

Once an initial estimate has been determined of the enrichment, the number of fuel assemblies to be loaded in the cycle, and the types of BPs that are most suited for the iPWR being developed, the next phase is to determine how to load the core, and which of the assemblies loaded in the previous cycle of operation are available […]

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NSSS level transmitters

Level sensing and indication are a requirement for NSSS control systems. Several NSSS level measurements come from the protection system (safety system) through isolators, such as pressurizer level, steam generator level, and refueling water storage tank level. Other level indications such as boric acid tank level, volume control tank level, and accumulator tank level come directly into the NSSS processing […]

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