Category Archives: Advances in Biorefineries

Biorefinery types and product areas as defined by feedstocks and waste streams

There are three biomass feedstocks: carbohydrate (starch, cellulose and hemicellulose) and lignin from lignocellulosic biomass, triglycerides (soybean, palm, rapeseed, sunflower oil) and mixed organic residues. Ligno — cellulosic feedstocks can be obtained through the production of dedicated crops such as miscanthus or short rotation woody crops such as willow or poplar. Agricultural residues such as rice or wheat straw and […]

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Trade of biomass and subsidies

2.3.1 Biomass cost estimates by feedstock type Lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks employed by biorefineries can broadly be divided into two categories: dedicated energy crops and residues. Dedicated energy crops are crops grown specifically for use as biomass feedstocks in biorefineries. These are divided into two further categories: herbaceous energy crops and short-rotation woody crops. Herbaceous energy crops contain little to no […]

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System optimization and statistical techniques

There is a growing desire to optimize TEA models and understand the implications for real systems. Modern process modeling tools include optimization functions or can couple with stand-alone optimization software like IBM ILOG CPLEX Optimizer, GurobiTM, and GAMS among others. These tools allow researchers to systematically identify optimal operating parameters that meet certain constraints.

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New renewable feedstocks

1.3.1 Drivers for change The EU has recognized that, in order to sustain our demands in energy, chemicals and food, while addressing environmental issues, we need to substantially reduce our dependence on oil by establishing a bio-based economy. The European Commission recently issued Mandate M/429 (European Commission, 2011) to develop a standardization programme for

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Federal subsidy programs

The United States has employed a number of biofuel subsidy and tariff programs since the 1970s that have influenced the economic feasibility of biorefineries. The majority of these programs expired at the end of 2011 (Pear, 2012) and the US government has switched the focus of biofuels policy from protectionist programs to a low-carbon mandate in the form of the […]

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Environmental and sustainability assessment of biorefineries

L. SCHEBEK and O. MR AN I, Technische Universitat Darmstadt, Germany DOI: 10.1533/9780857097385.1.67 Abstract: Given the fact that biorefineries are gaining increasing attention as a technology for mitigation of climate change and sustainable development in general, it is not surprising that sustainability assessment of biorefineries has also become an issue. The interaction of biorefineries with their environment is very complex. […]

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Concept of a waste biorefinery

There is a growing recognition that the twin problems of waste management and resource depletion can be solved together through the utilization of waste as a resource. Some initiatives looking at the re-use of waste already exist, like in Spain for example, where the environmental complex of Montalban, Spain (Epremasa, Complejo Medioambiantale de Montalban), is a unique example of integrated […]

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