Category Archives: Advances in Biorefineries

State subsidy programs

A number of states have implemented subsidy programs to encourage local biofuel production. These programs range from renewable portfolio standards (RPS) to state-wide blending requirements to low — and zero- interest loans for the construction of biorefineries. Blending requirements and RPSs both indirectly affect the economic feasibility of biorefineries by creating demand for their products. Blending requirements mandate the blending […]

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Advances in Biorefineries

In the future, many consumer products presently derived from fossil fuel resources such as oil, coal and gas, are likely to be derived from renewable and sustainably produced biomass resources. In addition to the production of liquid and gaseous biofuels used for transport, structural composite materials, reinforced plastics using wood fibres, pharmaceuticals, health promoting products and food sweeteners, bio-products from […]

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Methodological foundations of environmental and sustainability assessment of technologies

3.2.1 Methods and indicators of sustainable development Given the broad concept of sustainability outlined above, it is obvious that sustainability assessment does not mean one single method, but that different types of methodologies and assessment procedures may be applied. This calls for the structuring or a typology of approaches, and indeed such typologies can be found in the literature. Before […]

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European Union subsidy programs

The European Union (EU) has implemented a number of programs incentivizing the production of biorenewable energy, both on a Eurozone scale and a national scale by its member nations. The various programs are broadly split into the categories of biorenewable electricity and biofuels. The EU’s 2009 Renewables Directive (Anon., 2009a) creates two separate binding targets for member nations. First, EU […]

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Preface

The concept of ‘biorefining’ has emerged over many decades, more recently stimulated by the drive for sustainability. The underlying aspiration is that renewable feedstock can be processed to partially replace the non-renewable fossil fuels that currently provide the bulk of our energy and chemicals. Of course, ‘biorefining’ is not new, as the exploitation of biomass for food, fuel and materials […]

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EU member nation subsidy programs

A number of EU member nations have implemented their own programs incentivizing biorenewables as part of the binding targets imposed by the 2009 Renewables Directive. A wide variety of program types are employed, ranging from feed-in tariffs to mandates to tax incentives. The United Kingdom’s (UK) Renewables Obligation establishes a mandate of 20% renewable electricity generation in the country by […]

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Green chemistry, biorefineries and second generation strategies for re-use of waste: an overview

L. A. PFALTZGRAFF and J. H. CLARK, University of York, UK DOI: 10.1533/9780857097385.1.3 Abstract: Today fossil resources supply 86% of our energy and 96% of organic chemicals. Future petroleum production is unlikely to meet our society’s growing needs. Green chemistry is an area which is attracting increasing interest as it provides unique opportunities for innovation via use of clean and […]

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