Category Archives: The Asian Biomass Handbook

Silage fermentation

The preservation of forage crops as silage depends upon the production of sufficient acids to inhibit the activity of undesirable microorganisms under anaerobic conditions. The epiphytic lactic acid bacteria (LAB) that naturally present on forage crops convey sugar into lactic acid in the ensiling process. It is well established that LAB play an important role in silage fermentation. LAB is […]

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Policies and Mansatories

New and Renewable Energy Promotion law enacted in 2002 approves bioenergy as a renewable energy and supports its implementation. The total exemption of excise duty is now available for biodiesel used as motor fuel. The current excise duty of diesel is about $0.5/L. All Korean oil refineries should mix a certain amount of biodiesel in their diesel oil products (Table […]

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Energy security

The economies of all countries, and particularly of the developed countries, are dependent on secure supplies of energy. Energy security means consistent availability of sufficient energy in various forms at affordable prices. These conditions must prevail over the long-term if energy is to contribute to sustainable development. Attention to energy security is critical because of the uneven distribution of the […]

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Productivity

Productivity of E. crassipes was recorded as 11-23 kgFW (fresh weight)/m2.year (0.5-1.2 kgDW (dry weight)/m2.year) during growing season in Japan, and reached 21.1 kgDW /m2.year under sufficient light and nutrients. Eel grass productivity is 0.3-0.8 kgDW/m2.year (120-320 gC/m2.year), and that of Thalassia reached 5 gDW/m2.day during 8 months in Florida, U. S.A.

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Energy efficiency

In China, the effects of CCB use for an economy and an environment are estimated as follows; As for the consumption of coal decrease 20%, because CCB includes a biomass of 20%. And, by improvement of flammability of fuel, about 25% heat efficiency becomes higher than a present coal boiler. When CCB were consumed 1,000,000 t/year in China, it is […]

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Mechanism of biomethanation

When organic compounds are maintained at 5-70°C and neutral pH under anaerobic conditions, spontaneously biomethanation will happen. Biogas is often produced from underground of landfill. Kitchen garbage and sewage sludge have been used as substrates of biomethanation. Organic wastewater from food factory containing sugars and starch has been also used as substrate for biomethanation.

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Energy consumption of pretreatment for energy conversion of biomass

For biomass utilization, pretreatment such as transportation from plantation site, crushing (tipping), and drying are required. Although each conversion technology requires particular chip size and moisture content of biomass, Table 6.2.5 shows an example (transportation energy, crushing energy, and drying energy). To calculate the transportation energy, it was assumed that 5 t-dry biomass was transported by the track whose maximum […]

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Ethanol Production

8.5.1 What is a good source for ethanol production? In Thailand, most existing commercial ethanol production plants use molasses as a feedstock but with increasing new facilities to use cassava in the near future. However, these two energy crops are still considered as food, which may interfere with the ‘food vs. fuel’ issue. As a result, more people are looking […]

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