Category Archives: The Asian Biomass Handbook

Biomass Energy Content

2.4.1 Indicators of biomass energy content In order to establish biomass energy systems, the energy content of each type of biomass feedstock should be determined at first. Heating value is often used as an indicator of the energy that biomass contains. Heating value is the amount of heat generated when a substance undergoes complete combustion, and is also called the […]

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Animal Waste

2.13.1 What is animal waste? Livestock feces and urine are the major animal waste products and the amounts of livestock feces and urine account for the greatest portion of domestic organic waste in Japan. The feces and urine contain many easily degradable organic materials and many nutrient materials, such as nitrogen and phosphorus. The quantity and quality of feces and […]

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Examination of biomass material properties

Examination of biomass material properties is necessary before planning gasification. (a) Element analysis Carbon (C), hydrogen (H), oxygen (O), sulfur (S), nitrogen (N) and chlorine (Cl) are observed through element analysis (HCN coder etc.). Excessive sulfur and/or chlorine can cause corrosion of plant equipment. The abbreviated molecular formula CnHmOp can be determined by obtaining the mol ratios for carbon (C), […]

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Hydrogen Fermentation

5. 4. 1 What is hydrogen fermentation? Anaerobic fermentation is a reaction in which anaerobic microorganisms oxidatively decompose organic materials to get energy under anaerobic conditions. We call fermentative reactions in which hydrogen is the final product as hydrogen fermentation. In hydrogen fermentation, some organic materials and alcohols are produced with hydrogen. Although final electron acceptor is oxygen or inorganic […]

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Singapore

Singapore has always enjoyed a reputation as a “Garden City” for being “clean and green” due to its effective management of the urban environment and maintenance of the green space. With a land mass of approximately 700 square km and population of 4.5 million, it has also invested heavily on the environmental infrastructures such as waste water treatment and waste […]

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The Asian Biomass Handbook

It is a great pleasure and honor for me to give some words for this Biomass Handbook. In 2002 we had already published Biomass Handbook in Japanese edition with the help of more than 60 contributors who are distinguished specialists in this field. This time English version has been issued with the cooperation of scientists and engineers of Asian countries […]

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Primary production and existing amount of herbaceous biomass

Existing biomass of tropical savanna is lower than that of tropical rainforest. The primary production of the tropical savanna, which has rich rhizosphere and the grasses vigorously grow under heavy grazing of animals, is similar to that of tropical rainforest, whose rhizosphere is shallow, of poor quality. As such, tropical savanna greatly contributes to the reduction of CO2 when compared […]

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Characteristics of hydrothermal gasification

Hydrothermal gasification is suitable for wet biomass treatment. When wet biomass is to be gasified, usual thermochemical gasification is not employed due to its high moisture content. Hydrothermal gasification, on the other hand, uses water as reaction medium, and thus wet biomass can be treated without costly, energy-consuming drying pretreatment. Since reactivity of water is high under these conditions, hydrothermal […]

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