Category Archives: Biotechnological Applications of Hemicellulosic Derived Sugars: State-of-the-Art

Expert Commentary and Five Year View

The Tactical Garbage to Energy Refinery (TGER) is a trailerable, skid-mounted device capable of converting waste products (paper, plastic, packaging and food waste) into electricity via a standard 60 kW diesel generator. Additionally, the sys­tem can utilize available local biomass as a feedstock. Waste materials are converted into bio-energetics which displaces the diesel fuel used to power the generator set. […]

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Limitations in Fermentative H2 Production

In spite of striking advantages, the main challenge encountered with fermentative H2 production processes are low substrate conversion efficiency and residual substrate present in acid-rich wastewater generated from the acidogenic process. Anaerobic bacteria have a theoretical maximum yield of 4 mol H2/mole glucose [3]. In prac­tice, yields are lower, as the NADH oxidation by NFOR is inhibited under standard conditions […]

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Background Research

1.1 Natural Resource Limitation and Economic Security Although the potential adverse environmental effects of CO2 emission is a major factor pressuring governments to steer their energy policy away from fossil fuels, the global decline of fossil fuel reserves is also a major driver for public and private organizations around the world to develop technologies to use renewable energy sources. Various […]

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Drivers for Commerciallmplementation of AD

The drivers that stimulate commercial interest to implement AD include a complex set of economic, business, energy, environmental, and sociopolitical factors that are interactive and may be weighted differently for each AD implementation opportu­nity. The economic and business drivers relate to those that directly contribute to the profitability of an AD project through the rate of return on the investment. […]

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Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE)

Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) is a gel electrophoresis method used to separate DNA fragments of the same length, but containing different base — pair sequences; it is used to determine the presence and abundance of different microbial species in a mixed population [12]. It is based on the principle that increasing the denaturant concentration will melt double-stranded DNA in […]

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2, 3-Butanediol

2, 3-BD is the 2R, 3R isomer of 1, 4-butanediol, a potential bulk chemical that can be produced by a variety of microorganisms through microbial fermentation [55]. It has been utilized for the production of various chemical feedstocks and liquid fuels, including the formation of the liquid fuel additive methyl ethyl ketone by dehydration [56]. The esters of butanediol and […]

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Production of Methane Biogas as Fuel Through Anaerobic Digestion

Zhongtang Yu and Floyd L. Schanbacher Abstract Anaerobic digestion (AD) is a biotechnology by which biomass is con­verted by microbes to methane (CH4) biogas, which can then be utilized as a renewable fuel to generate heat and electricity. A genetically and metabolically diverse community of microbes (mainly bacteria and methanogens) drives the AD process through a series of complex microbiological […]

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Strategies to Enhance Process Efficiency

1.2 Process Integration Approach Utilization of remaining carbon present in wastewater from acidogenic H2 produc­tion (an organic acid rich effluent) for additional biogas (H2 or CH4) generation is one way to sustain the process. Integration of an acidogenic process with a terminal photo-fermentative process (for additional H2 production) [6, 7, 110] or acidogenic process (for additional H2 production) [86] or […]

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Biotechnological Applications of Hemicellulosic Derived Sugars: State-of-the-Art

Anuj K. Chandel, Om V. Singh, and L. Venkateswar Rao Abstract Hemicellulose is the second most abundant polysaccharide in nature, after cellulose. As a substrate, it is readily available for the production of value-added products with industrial significance, such as ethanol, xylitol, and 2, 3-butanediol. Hemicellulose is a heterogeneous carbohydrate polymer with a xylose-linked backbone connecting to glucose, galactose, mannose, […]

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