Category Archives: Advances in Biofuels

Current Production of Biodiesel

The first method for production of biodiesel is by pyrolysis reaction in which oils or fats are thermally cracked to similar chemical compositions of fossil fuels in the absence of oxygen (Ma and Hanna 1999). However, pyrolyzed vegetable oils are contaminated with trace amounts of sulfur, water, and sediment, and these could lead to corrosion problems in the engine. This […]

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Macroalgae biomass can be converted by biological methods. Fermentation is a biological conversion method of the biomass to produce energy carriers like hydro­gen, ethanol and biogas. All living organisms obtain the energy necessary to sustain life, from the oxidation of organic substances by molecular oxygen, in the process of respiration. Under anaerobic conditions (low oxygen concentrations), many organisms, including yeast, […]

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Way Forward

1.3.1 First-Generation Biofuels For long-term sustainable biodiesel deployment, a vertical integration of palm bio­diesel production is required where the palm biodiesel plants are to be built in close vicinity to palm oil mills and palm oil refinery. The ultimate goal is the extraction and production of value-added products from palm biodiesel, i. e. palm phytonutri­ents such as carotenes, vitamin E, […]

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Heterogeneous Base Catalysts

At the moment, almost all commercial biodiesel productions used homogeneous base catalysts. However, the major disadvantage of homogeneous catalyst is the fact that it cannot be reused. Furthermore, the separation of catalyst from the reaction mixture requires further stages of washing, and the process is usually conducted in batch type rather than continuous type. In recent times, the research focusing […]

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In cross-linking, intermolecular linkages are formed between enzyme molecules by means of bifunctional or multifunctional reagents such as glutaraldehyde, bisdiazo — benzidine, and hexamethylene diisocyanate. In cross-linking, the immobilized lipase is stable due to the strong interactions among enzyme and cross-linking agent. The application of this biocatalyst in biodiesel gives considerable good yield, but the small size of these aggregates […]

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Biomass Conversion to Fuel (Solid, Liquid and Gas Fuel)

Suzana Yusup, Murni Melati Ahmad, Anita Ramli, Khan Zakir, and Mas Fatiha Mohamad Abstract This chapter highlights the potential of utilising biomass as a renewable feedstock to produce biofuel and biochemical. Technologies for the conversion pro­cesses are discussed. In addition, case study on biomass conversion to H2 is pre­sented. The effect of steam and newly developed bimetallic catalyst (Fe/Ni/ Zeolite-P) […]

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