Category Archives: Advances in Biofuels

Palm Oil Mill Effluent

POME is a thick concentrated dark brownish colloidal slurry (comprising water, oil and fine cellulosic materials) which is generated as the largest amount of liquid wastes (about 95% water and 5% solids) from the palm oil industry. POME is produced in the form of condensate and clarification sludge from two main processes in the oil mill, namely, sterilisation and clarification, […]

Read more

Ionic Liquids

Ionic liquid (IL), or also known as molten salt, has emerged as one of the potential candidate in the effort of searching for greener catalyst in biodiesel production. It is considered to be superior to its homogeneous catalyst counterpart (i. e., NaOH, H2SO4) in terms of its properties, such as volatility and solubility with reactants. The out­standing volatility of IL […]

Read more

Various Immobilization Techniques in Biodiesel Production

The main aim of various immobilization techniques is to design an efficient lipase — immobilized system for biodiesel production. A number of researches done in this field show that the design of an efficient immobilized lipase is rather a difficult task. Still researchers and organizations worldwide are focused on this task to make an efficient lipase-immobilized system with maximum number […]

Read more

Strategies for Business Development in the Biofuel Sector at POIC Lahad Datu

The key activities for business development in the biofuel sector at POIC Lahad Datu are outlined as follows: • Promotional activities. To intensify promotional activities especially in the bio­fuel sector. The strengths and advantages of POIC Lahad Datu in particular the geographic location (Fig. 2.5) and its deep sea port (Fig. 2.6) are the key attrac­tions for promotion.

Read more

Biopolymer Composite Materials

The properties of OPW fibres make them suitable for the manufacture of composite biopolymers (e. g. plastics). The pores on fibre surface have an average diameter of 0.07 m which gives it a better mechanical interlocking with matrix resin in compos­ite fabrication (Sreekala et al. 1997) . Also, the high cellulose content and high toughness value of OPW make it […]

Read more

Catalytic Trans esterification Reaction

Transesterification of vegetable oil with methanol in the presence of catalyst is a vital industrialized process and it has been well established. In general, there are three categories of catalysts used to catalyze transesterification reaction for biodiesel pro­duction: alkalis, acids, and enzymes (Ma and Hanna 1999). The alkali and acid cata­lysts including homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysts are commonly used in […]

Read more

Olive Oil Hydrolysis

Hydrolysis of olive oil was carried out with immobilized lipase with and without glutaraldehyde cross-linking. The reaction mixture which consisted of 30 ml of olive oil, 47.6 ml of я-hexane, 2.4 ml water, and 4 g immobilized lipase was incu­bated at 40°C, 200 rpm in a stirred tank reactor. Samples were withdrawn at specific time intervals and analyzed for fatty […]

Read more
1 2 3 4 15