Category Archives: Advances in Biofuels

Biomass to Gas

Two common potential biofuels from oil palm biomass are producer gas from gas­ification and biogas via anaerobic digestion. A pilot scale compartmented fluidised — bed gasifier was set up in MPOB Experimental Palm Oil Mill in Labu to produce syngas using palm shell and mesocarp fibre (Rahman et al. 2011).

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Palm-Pressed Fibre

PPF is an elongated fibrous (cellulosic) residue of palm oil fruits generated after oil extraction processes. PPF constitutes about 16% of the solid biomass of FFB. The strands of PPF which measure about 30-50 mm in length have been found to con­tain about 5-7% of residue oil after screw-press extraction of CPO (Choo et al. 1996; Sanagi et al. 2005).

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Homogeneous Acid Catalysts

An alternative catalyst for conventional transesterification is homogeneous acid catalyst. Sulfuric acid (H2SO4) and hydrochloric acid (HCl) are usually preferred as acid catalysts. They are preferred to base catalyst when the amount of FFA in feed­stock is high due to its high tolerance and less sensitivity towards high FFA concen­tration. The application of acid catalyst can avoid formation of soap.

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12.3 Lipase Immobilization

“Immobilization” refers to localization or physical confinement of an enzyme (bio­catalyst) in a certain defined region of space on to a solid support or on a carrier matrix with retention of its catalytic activity. The main purpose of immobilizing an enzyme is for reuse so that the high cost of enzyme can be overcome to a certain extent. The term […]

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CO2 Mitigation by Microalgae

14.2.1 CO2 Emissions and Environmental Concerns As of 2009, the total CO2 emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels were esti­mated to be ~29,000 MT. The transportation industry contributed more CO2 emissions than any other sector, accounting for more than 37% of the total. Scientists have indicated that CO2 emissions are more likely to harm the environment than to pro­vide […]

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