Category Archives: Biofuels for Road Transport

Freshwater Macrophytes

The best-studied macrophyte is the water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) (Gass — mann et al. 2006; Gunnarsson and Petersen 2007). It has been found to produce up to 140 Mgha-1 year-1 of biomass (dry weight) (Gunnarsson and Petersen 2007). Two energetic applications of Eichhornia crassipes which may produce transport bio­fuels have been studied. The first is ethanol production from hemicellulose present […]

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Near-Shore Marine Phytobiomass

Near-shore perspectives for exploiting macroalgae may be different. Firstly, there are cases where macroalgae have developed into a pest because of eutrophication (Morand and Merceron 2005). In some of these cases, significant amounts of these macroalgae are currently collected and landfilled. For instance, in Europe, this hap­pens in parts of the Venice Lagoon, the Ortbetello Lagoon, the Bay of Brittany […]

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Transport Biofuels and Climate

4.3.1 Introduction Transport biofuels made from plants are often called ‘climate neutral’ or ‘carbon neutral’. These terms can be traced back to the participation of plants in the bio­geochemical C cycle. Plants take up CO2 from the atmosphere and convert this into biomass, and when biomass is burned, the CO2 is ‘given back’ to the atmo­sphere. There is said to […]

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Cumulative Fossil Fuel Demand

2.3.1 Transport Biofuels from Terrestrial Plants Most studies regarding cumulative fossil energy demand have been done for trans­port biofuels from terrestrial plants, and most agree that the seed-to-wheel cumula­tive demand for fossil fuels associated with transport biofuels from terrestrial plants is lower than the well-to-wheel demand of fossil transport fuels. However, Patzek and Pimentel (Pimentel 2003; Patzek 2004; Patzek and […]

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Non-greenhouse Gas Emissions

Using transport biofuels may change the emissions of non-greenhouse gases, if com­pared with the original (fossil) fuel. For instance, the substitution of fossil diesel by biodiesel (fatty acid ester) reduces sulphur dioxide emissions but tends to increase the emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) from diesel, whereas the acute effects on res­piratory organs do not change significantly (Ban-Weiss et al. 2007; […]

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Microalgae from Open Ponds and Bioreactors

While aiming at transport biofuels, the growth of microalgae with high levels of oil (triacylglycerol) followed by lipid extraction has drawn most attention (Scragg et al. 2002; Wijffels 2008; www. oilgae. com; Dismukes et al. 2008; Liu et al. 2008). Such lipids can then subsequently be converted into replacements for fossil fuels, in ways similar to vegetable oils from terrestrial […]

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Fossil-Fuel-Based Carbonaceous Greenhouse Gas Emissions

Transport biofuels replace fossil fuels. But because, as pointed out in Chap. 2, much production in current societies is dependent on fossil fuels, it will come as no sur­prise that burning fossil fuels is often an important contributor to the greenhouse gas emissions associated with biofuels. N fertilizers are often made on the basis of natu­ral gas; tractors and transport […]

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