Category Archives: Biofuels for Road Transport

Other Carbonaceous Biogenic Emissions

When vegetation is cleared to make way for biofuel cropping, there may be sig­nificant emissions of non-CO2 carbonaceous greenhouse gases, including CO and hydrocarbons. In practice, these gases may add, in CO2 equivalents, 10-20% to the emission of CO2 only (Reijnders and Huijbregts 2008a). Also, if compared with forested land, arable land with annual biofuel crops becomes a reduced sink […]

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Terrestrial Plants

Terrestrial plants vary widely in their yearly yields per hectare. Yields are depen­dent on insolation, temperature, the presence of nutrients and water and the nature of plants (Coombs et al. 1987). In natural ecosystems on average, the efficiency of photosynthesis in converting solar energy into plant material is usually in the or­der of 0.1-0.3% (Mezhunts and Givens 2004; Rosing et […]

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Biodiversity and Ecosystem Function Loss Due to Replacement of Nature

Biodiversity of areas under annual crops, perennial grass crops or plantations may be different from that of the nature that they replace(d). To the extent that transport biofuel production leads to losses of natural habitats, there is apparently a consistent negative effect on species diversity (Fahrig 2003). The effect appears to be stronger at higher trophic levels (Dobson et al. […]

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Virtual Biofuels

There is also an option which may be called virtual biofuels. The pyrolytic produc­tion of ‘black carbon’ (also charcoal, biochar) from biomass has been advocated as an alternative to biofuels (Fowles 2007). Such black carbon would be added to soils, where it said to be ‘very stable’ and able to fulfil useful functions. This is argued to offset CO2 emissions […]

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Forests and Plantations

Obtaining biofuels derived from plantations and forests heavily relies on including parts of trees, such as crowns, that have relatively high concentrations of nutrients (Manley and Richardson 1995; Perry 1998; Sims and Riddell-Black 1998; Pare et al. 2002; Rytter 2002). In the relatively young trees that characterize plantations, nutri­ent concentrations are, moreover, higher than in older trees (Rytter 2002). The […]

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What Government Policy Should One Aim at for Transport Biofuels?

As pointed out in Chap. 1, much of the impetus for the development of transport biofuel production has come from governments. Looking back on the results of government intervention, as discussed in the previous pages of this book, this has been a very mixed blessing. So, are there suggestions for government policy which may be conducive to more beneficial results?

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Terrestrial Biofuels

For some applications, biomass as it is produced in solar energy conversion may be used as such. This applies, for instance, to the generation of electricity, which in turn may be used for electrical traction. However, diesel or Otto motors or fuel cells need the use of specific biochemicals (transport biofuels) such as specific alcohols and acylesters, as discussed in […]

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Cropping and Harvesting Feedstocks for Biofuels

5.4.1 Cropping and Crop Harvesting Practices There are a variety of aspects of cropping and crop harvesting practices regarding terrestrial biofuels that may impact biodiversity. The use of cropping systems which include a relatively wide crop genetic diversity may allow for more services in the fields of pest control and pollination than cropping systems that have a narrow ge­netic base […]

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