Category Archives: Pyrolysis

CURRENT DEVELOPMENTS IN SYNGAS FERMENTATION

4.2 Biorefinery Concept According to the Biomass Research and Development Technical Advisory Committee of the US Departments of Energy and Agriculture (2002) Report published by the U. S. Department of Energy and U. S. Department of Agriculture, the biorefinery is defined as "A processing and conversion facility that efficiently separates its biomass raw materials into individual components and converts these […]

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BUBBLING FLUIDIZED BED (BFB) PYROLYSIS

A simple method for the rapid heating of biomass particles is to mix them with the moving sand particles of a high-temperature fluid bed. High heat transfer rates can be achieved, as the bed usually contains small sand particles, generally about 250 pm. The heat required is generated by combustion of the pyrolysis gases, and/or char, and eventually transferred to […]

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Temperature

The temperature of the culture media affects the syngas fermentation in two ways. Firstly, it affects the growth kinetics and secondly, it affects the solubility of the syngas in aqueous medium. In most cases, the temperature of the culture media is decided based on the specific microorganism. The most favorable growth temperature for mesophilic microorganisms is 37-40 °C, while for […]

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Ethanol Fermentation

Ethanol is one of the major desirable products of syngas fermentation. Ethanol is com­monly used as a direct additive to gasoline. It has an octane value of 129 and the energy con­tent is about 70% of that of gasoline. Most of the syngas-fermenting microbes use acetyl-CoA pathway to produce ethanol. During that process, CO and H2 are oxidized and produce […]

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CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED BED (CFB) PYROLYSIS

CFB reactor has been widely used for the pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass into high yield of liquid products (Rapid Thermal Process, RTP; UOP).The CFB reactor has many advantages, for example, the simple structures, high production capacity, favorable conditions of heat and mass transfer, and the convenience of operation, etc., the CFB was used as the main reactor in this study. […]

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6.7 Growth Culture Media

Growth media provides the microbes with all essential nutrients such as minerals, trace elements, vitamins, and reducing agents for their maximal growth. The selection of the growth media depends on the selected species and the targeted end products. Reducing agents (e. g., sodium thioglycolate, ascorbic acid, and benzyl-viologen) result in shift in the electron flow, thereby diverting the carbon flow […]

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PERSPECTIVES AND CHALLENGES

Several potential scenarios for biofuels can be foreseen in the future. The big hopes for the transport sector are second — and future third-generation biofuels, including biodiesel from microbial oil, the production of biobutanol (from nonedible feedstocks) as a more petrol-like fuel, and the preparation of biofuels from cellulosic and biomass nonedible feedstocks.

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Butanol Fermentation

B. methylotrophicum has the ability to convert syngas into acetic acid, butyric acid, and buta­nol. Shen et al. (1999) compared the physiological differences between the wild-type and the CO-adapted strains of B. methylotrophicum, and the production of both butyrate and butanol from CO. The authors found that the activity of the wild-type B. methylotrophicum was completely inhibited by the presence […]

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AUGER (SCREW) REACTOR

The auger type of pyrolyzer has been identified as especially appealing for its potential to reduce operating costs associated with bio-oil production. This design may also be well suited for small, portable pyrolysis systems in a highly distributed or decentralized biomass processing scheme. The operating principle of this design is that biomass is continuously pyrolyzed by being brought into direct […]

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