Category Archives: Pyrolysis

Continuous Stirred-tank Reactor

CSTRs are the most commonly employed bioreactors in syngas fermentation. The CSTR has a continuous gas supply into the liquid phase, while agitator controls the gas-liquid mass transfer (Vega et al., 1990). Higher agitation speeds lead to a higher mass transfer rate between the substrate gases and the microbes. However, in industrial-scale fermentors, higher agitation speeds increase the agitator’s power […]

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Co-processing

Investigation and large-scale application of co-gasification and co-pyrolysis of biomass and coal are becoming more common recently. In addition to the reduction of CO2 emission, cogasification of biomass provides several advantages over biomass or coal gasification (Kumabe et al., 2007). One of the advantages is the reduction of sulfur and ash that cause equipment corrosion and environmental problems in coal […]

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Syngas Impurities

Biomass-derived syngas often contains additional constituents such as CH4, some higher hydrocarbons (C2H2, C2H4 and C2H6), tar, ash, and char particles. Since most of the researchers use bottled synthetic gas mixtures for syngas fermentation studies, there are limited studies that examine the effects of impurities on syngas fermentation (Ahmed and Lewis, 2007). The authors reported the effects of NO on […]

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VORTEX REACTOR

A vortex tube has certain advantages as a chemical reactor, especially if the reactions are endothermic, the reaction pathways are temperature dependent, and the products are temperature sensitive. With low-temperature differences, the vortex reactor can transmit enormous heat fluxes to a process stream containing entrained solids. This reactor has nearly plug flow and is ideally suited for the production of […]

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Bubble Columns

The bubble column consists of a glass column mounted on a steel base (Datar et al., 2004). The substrate gases are introduced into the reactor through a fritted glass disk with a pore size of 4-6 microns. These reactors are mainly designed for industrial applications with large reac­tor volumes. High mass transfer rate and relatively low operational and maintenance cost […]

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Hydrolysis

Hydrolysis pathways are appropriate for lignocellulose processing if higher selectivity is desired in biomass utilization, for example, in the production of chemical intermediates or targeted hydrocarbons for transportation fuel. Selective transformations require isolation of sugar monomers, a step which is complex and expensive for lignocellulosic feedstocks. Once sugar monomers are isolated, however, they can be processed efficiently at relatively mild […]

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Syngas Cleaning

In general, the gasification of biomass is often followed by a gas clean-up and conditioning. The gas mixture is passed through a series of cyclones and filters to remove most of the unde­sirable pollutants (e. g., tar, particulate matter, and char). Datar et al. (2004) employed a con­densation tower followed by acetone scrubbers to remove tar and moisture from the […]

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BIO-REFINERIES AND BIOFUELS

In addition to being a resource for energy generation, lignocellulosic biomass has potential to serve for multiple purposes. There is not necessarily a concurrence of various options. Highest value can be achieved by diverting individual components to optimum routes, thus aiming to achieve complete valorization of the material. Among possible target utilization options are to be mentioned in particular: (i) […]

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