Category Archives: 1 BIOFUELS

SUPER CRITICAL GASIFICATION OF BIOMASS

Super critical water gasification (SCWG) technology is suitable for wet biomasses and organic wastes. This technology takes advantage of the large amount of water in biomasses by using the water as a reaction medium, eliminating the costly feedstock-drying step. Supercritical water has a low dielectric constant close to that of organic compounds. The organic reactions under supercritical water, therefore, become […]

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FEEDSTOCKS FOR BIOFUELS

Biomass is harvested as part of a constantly replenished crop. This maintains a closed carbon cycle with no net increase in atmospheric CO2 levels. There are five basic categories of material, that is, virgin wood, forestry materials, materials from arboricultural activities or from wood processing; energy crops: high-yield crops grown specifically for energy applications; agricultural residues: residues from agriculture harvesting […]

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THE CONCEPT OF LCA AND ITS APPLICATION TO BIOFUELS

Life-cycle analysis (LCA) or assessment is an internationally renowned methodology for evaluating the global environmental performance of a product along its partial or whole life cycle, considering the impacts generated from "cradle to grave." At its early age, the meth­odology was mainly dedicated to industrial products. Although the ISO 14040-series (ISO, 2006a, b) provides the standard for LCA, it was […]

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Entrained Flow Combustion

The fuel particles are transported into an externally heated silicon carbide (SiC) tube pneumatically through an insulated and water-cooled injector. Prior to the injection, the feed­ing stream, composed of air and fuel particles, has to pass through an agitation chamber for "disaggregation and filtering of pulses in the feeding." The feeding fuel is ignited by a natural gas/air burner at […]

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Well-to-Wheel System

The WtW net GHG emissions of ethanol are calculated as the product of the WtT net GHG emissions and the specific fuel consumption of ethanol in the fuel blend (as reported in Table 3). The WtW net GHG emissions of ethanol (expressed in kg CO2 eq./km) are then com­pared to those of unleaded gasoline.

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HYDROTHERMAL GASIFICATION OF BIOMASS

Hydrothermal gasification is the conversion of solid biomass into gaseous and/or liquid products in the presence of steam. Different hydrothermal biomass gasification processes are under development. In contrast to biomass gasification processes without water, biomass with the natural water content ("green biomass") can be converted completely and energeti­cally efficiently to gases. Depending on the reaction conditions, methane or hydrogen is […]

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COMPOSITION OF LIGNOCELLULOSIC BIOMASS

Biomass is an organic material which stores sunlight in the form of chemical energy. It is available on a renewable basis. Here, we specifically mention the lignocellulosic biomass from plants and residues from various agricultural activities. Biomass is an organic mate­rial that is composed of polymers that have extensive chains of carbon atoms linked to macromolecules. The polymer back bone […]

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