Category Archives: BIOFUELS 1

A DECADE OF LIGNOCELLULOSIC BIOPROCESS

DEVELOPMENT: STAGNATION OR CONSOLIDATION? Iogen’s process in Canada and (insofar as process details can be assessed) from Spanish and other imminent facilities use only a small fraction of the technologies that have been devised for ethanol production from lignocellulosic sources; patents and patent applications covering the last 30 years are exemplified by those listed in table 4.6.

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Radical Options for the Development of Biofuels

7.1 BIODIESEL FROM MICROALGAE AND MICROBES 7.1.1 Marine and Aquatic Biotechnology In mid-2007, a review in the journal Biotechnology Advances concluded that micro­algae appeared to be the only source of renewable biodiesel capable of meeting the global demand for petrodiesel transportation fuels.1 The main argument was that the oil productivity of selected microalgae greatly exceeds that of the best seed […]

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Brazilian Sugarcane Ethanol in 1985: After the First Decade of the ProAlcool Program to Substitute for Imported Oil

The year 1985 marked the end of the first decade of the national program to use sugarcane-derived ethanol as an import substitute for gasoline. Rival estimates of the cost of Brazilian fuel ethanol varied widely, from $35 to $90/barrel of gasoline replaced. Assessing the economic impact of the various subsidies available to alcohol producers was difficult but indicated a minimum […]

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BIOFUELS OR A BIOBASED COMMODITY CHEMICAL INDUSTRY?

Technical advances will define to what extent agricultural and wastewater resources can be transformed into quantities of electricity and liquid and gaseous fuels as energy carriers and to what extent these will contribute to local and national power demands, but certain industries could benefit greatly from considering their wastes as sources of bioenergy, either for immediate use or as a […]

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Biodiesel Composition and Production Processes

Biodiesel is unique among biofuels in not being a single, defined chemical compound but a variable mixture, even from a monoculture crop source. The triglycerides in any plant oil are a mixture of unsaturated and saturated fatty acids esterified to glycerol; fatty materials from land animals have much higher contents of saturated fatty acids (table 6.2).6 This variability has one […]

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Do Biofuels Need — Rather than Biotechnology —

the Petrochemical Industry? There is little doubt that biotechnology has — or will — produce viable solutions to all the manifold problems inherent in processing lignocellulosic biomass with maximum efficiency into ethanol and other advanced biofuels. But are these tech­niques and methodologies simply too elaborate and overtechnologized for the task in hand? Although academic groups insert increasingly complex and inclusive […]

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"Microdiesel&quot

The cultivation of photosynthetic microalgae under dark conditions, supplied with organic carbon, closely resembles typical microbial fermentations. Because several bac­terial species are well known as accumulators of triglycerides (oils) and esters of fatty acids with long-chain alcohols (waxes), the logical conclusion was to combine these biosynthetic abilities with that of ethanol formation to generate the precursors of tri­glycerides in microbial […]

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