Types of heat generation in Ukraine in 2016 and their cost

In 2016, private consumers of heat in Ukraine receive the heat from the following sources: The most common one is electricity, which means electric boilers, electric fireplaces and heaters of different kinds. Skipping some details, in most cases the ultimate source is hydropower. Possible sources are nuclear power and thermal power stations. For the most of final consumers, the distributing […]

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Space monitoring of thermal anomalies and prospects for its application

The method of thermal imagery is considered to be one of the most modern and effective methods of scanning terrestrial objects. For successful detec­tion and identification of the UGE-controlled objects, such imagery requires knowledge of the spectral characteristics of radiation, weakening of the pathway of the working range of wavelengths, as well as the characteristics and capabilities of equipment in […]

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Thermal anomalies as informative signs of underground nuclear explosions

Investigation of residual effects from peaceful explosions is a laborious and expensive task, requiring the creation of special missions with the appropri­ate hardware and monitoring equipment including vehicles, staffed by highly qualified scientific and technical personnel. For example, to study the thermal fields, among other things, requires manned aircraft. It is consider­ably more convenient to study the geophysical implications and […]

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Problems as a consequence of underground nuclear tests

During surveys of the territories of Semipalatinsk nuclear test site by Amer­ican satellites NOAA-14 and NOAA-15, experts at the National Nuclear Centre of Kazakhstan detected large-scale surface temperature changes (Zakarin et al., 1997; Sultangazov et al., 1997). Their findings indicated the presence of a regional thermal anomaly with a surplus temperature of about 10°C in an area which was over […]

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Effects of the underground nuclear explosions on the environment

When a camouflet explosion occurs under high temperature (over a million degrees Kelvin) and high pressure (order of several million atmospheres), evaporation and melting of rock occurs in the region where the charge was laid, resulting in a boiler chamber having a shape similar to a three­dimensional ellipsoid. The effective radius of this cavity is 10-40 m. The cavity wall […]

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Remote monitoring of former underground nuclear explosion sites predominantly in the former USSR

V. P. B U S Y GIN, Defence Department, Russia DOI: 10.1533/9780857097446.3.833 Abstract: This chapter reviews and discusses the effects of residual features on the long-term geothermal activity in the epicentral zone of underground nuclear explosions (UGE). The thermal anomaly parameters and their connection to carrying out thermal surveys and surface thermal logging on the present day surface are determined. […]

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Risk-informed perspectives

A risk-informed perspective was added to the revised UGTA strategy, recognizing the twofold nature of the project goals. The first essential goal is to complete a sufficient level of characterization and modeling studies to establish a fundamental understanding of the processes of release and transport of test-produced radionuclides in groundwater. Second, this knowledge is applied to each CAU to identify […]

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Iterative modeling strategy and uncertainty

The second change in the strategy was designed to better represent the pragmatism of an iterative modeling approach focused on quantifying and attempting to reduce uncertainty sufficient to support regulatory decisions. Multiple decision points were added between NSO and NDEP at critical steps in the overall progression of UGTA studies. Each decision represents a juncture between continuing forward in the […]

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Evolution of the regulatory strategy

Characterization and modeling studies of sites of underground testing on the NNSS were conducted after acceptance of the FFACO agreement in the mid-1990s. However, progress was slow and multiple problems were encountered with implementing the original UGTA strategy (Marutzky et al. , 2010). The strategy assumed sequential progress through planned characterization and modeling studies and underestimated modeling uncer­tainty and the […]

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